In Arabic, fasting is shaum or shiyam which means restrain. Meanwhile, according to Shari’ah, Shaykh Muhammad ibn Saalih al-Uthaimin rahimahullah said,
“Shaum is the worship of Allah Azza wa Jalla with restraint from eating, drinking and everything that break from dawn to sunset.” ( Syarhul Mumti’ : 6/298).
Also read : law of maintaining beards in islam
Kind of Fasting
Fasting in the fourth of the five pillars of Islam has two types:
- Compulsory fasting that is Ramadan fasting, Kaffaah and Nadzar
- Sunnah fasting ie fasting on Monday Thursday, fasting six days after the month of Shawwal, fasting of Prophet Dawud and others
Besides that there are forbidden fasting ie fasting on Eid al-Fitr, Eid al-Adha , the white fasting, fasting for supernatural powers and others. Also read : virtue of pregnancy in Islam for women
The Law of Abandoning Fasting Intentionally
Ramadan fasting law for all Muslims is obligatory. Since by fasting it will give the soul peace in Islam. Allah says in Surah Al-Baqarah: 183 namely
يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا كُتِبَ عَلَيْكُمُ الصِّيَامُ كَمَا كُتِبَ عَلَى الَّذِينَ مِنْ قَبْلِكُمْ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَتَّقُونَ
“O you who have believed, decreed upon you is fasting as it was decreed upon those before you that you may become righteous” (QS. Al-Baqarah : 183)
Here are some scholars who discuss about the law of abandoning fasting intentionally, including:
- Shaykh Abdul ‘Aziz ar-Rajihi-hafizhahullah said, “Whoever denies Ramadan fasting, then he is a kafir and apostate of Islam. For he has neglected a great obligation and one pillar of Islamic pillars and one of a great thing from the teachings of Islam. Anyone who understands the obligations of Ramadan fasting, but he breaks intently for no reason, so he does a great sin of being wicked, but not disbelieved. He is obliged to fast or punish by prison by Muslim leaders or both of them.”
- Islamic Shaykh Ibn Taimiyah rahimahullah said: “If anyone intentionally leaves fasting, then they will be punished according to the leader’s decision, but if he has not yet or need to be taught first.” (Al-Fatawa Al-Kubro: 473)
- Ibn Hajar Al Haitsami rahimahullah said: Not performing fasting or breaking the fast with jima’ and not because of illness or travel, it includes as a great sins to 140 and 141.” (Az-Zawajir: 323)
- Scholar Lajnah Daimah lil Ifta said: “A mukallaf who abandons Ramadan fasting then it is a great sin, if without a syar’i udzur.” (Fatawa Lajnah Daimah: 357)
- Sheikh Ibn Baaz said: “Whoever abandons the fast one day in Ramdahan without the syar’i unjust, then in has done great munk, but if he repents, then Allah accepted his repentance. He is obliged to repent with honesty and regret of the past, resolved not to repeat it, recite istigfar as often as possible and pronounce ‘the day left behind.” [AdSense-B]
- Shaykh Ibn Uthaymeen rahimahullah said: “Breaking Ramadan fasting during the day for no apparent reason is a great sin, then the person is considered wicked and obliged to repent to Allah and replace the fast on the day he left behind.” (Majmu ‘Fatwa and Rasa’il Ibnu Utsaimin: 89)
- Narrated Abu Hurairah Radhiyallahu anhu that there is a man who breaks in Ramadan then he said: “Fasting a year would not be able to replace it.” (Ibn Hazm’s History in al-Muhallah: 184)
- Ali bin Abi Talib’s friend even gave a punishment by hit to the one who breaks the fasting month of Ramadan namely Atha ‘bin Abi Maryam from his father that An-Najasyi was escorted to Ali bin Abi Talib because he drank of khamr in Ramadan. Ali hit him 80 times, then the next day 20 more. Ali said: “We hit 20 times for your impotence to Allah. “(Ibn Hazm’s account in al-Muhalan: 184)
All of the above propositions indicate that abandoning fasting intentionally is a great sin based on the law.
[AdSense-A] However, Allah will always open the door of repentance to any servant who wants to repent. If you want to be saved in the hereafter, then you must carry out the commands of Allah and place His prohibitions. Also read : virtue of greatfulness in Islam
Things to Do to Replace Fasting
There are some opinions that explain about things that must be done to replace the Ramadan fasting that was abandoned due to illness, pregnancy, breastfeeding, travel, among others:
- He must performing qadha
This opinion is a general opinion that is only mandatory only for those who leave the Ramadan fasting in accordance with the number of days he abandon.
a. Opinions Sa’id bin Musayyib, Imam Sya’bi, Ibn Jubair, Ibrahim al-Nakha’i Qatadah, and Hammad said “He done one day as a repacement.”
b. Imam Malik rahimahullah said. “Whoever breaks fasting one day in Ramadan on a deliberate reason, then there is no sanction except to replace for that day.”
c. Imam al-Syafi’i rahimahullah argued for obligatory qadha the abandon day without paying kafarah. Since the expiation only applies to those who break the fast because of jima ‘, while the void of eating and drinking does not apply to the kafarat. Expand istighfar as a form of taubah.
d. Imam Nawawi mentioned that it is obligatory to make one day replacement. So who has made a day, it is enough to replace one abandoned day. Also read : law of playing dice in Islam
- He do not obligied to perform qadha, just repent in earnest
This second opinion states that leave Ramadan fasting intentionally, not enough with performing qadha even if it is done for the full year. Since he has ruined his fast for no apparent reason.
1. Allah said in His commandment,
“Fasting for a limited number of days. So whoever among you is ill or on a journey (during them) – then an equal number of days (are to be made up). And upon those who are able (to fast, but with hardship) – a ransom (as substitute) of feeding a poor person (each day). And whoever volunteers excess – it is better for him. But to fast is best for you, if you only knew.” (QS. Al-Baqarah : 184)
Then anyone who abandons fasting for no reason, then he substitutes his fast, it means he has made a new rule that is not permitted by Allah. Also read : law of using braces in Islam
2. Prophet Muhammad SAW said,
“Anyone who invent new things in Islam that is not from Allah, then rejected.”
3. Imam al-Bukhairi hinted that Ibn Mas’ud argued in accordance with Abu Hurairah’s hadeeth:
“Whoever does not fast a day in Ramadan intentionally, then even though a year’s fast will not be sufficient, so when he meets God, pardoned his sin, if he will not, then God will megadzabnya. “(Shaykh Khalid bin Abdullah al-Mushlih)
Thus the law of abandoning fasting intentionally. It is clear from above that we should not abandon fasting without any cause.
For that is included as a great sin. The World according to Islam is temporary, it is appropriate that we obey what Allah has commanded. And regarding the replacement of the fast that we leave in the month of Ramadan, then qadha is the solution.
After that repent sincerely to Allah that we will not repeat such acts again and add our knowledge by Pillars of Islam, Basic Islamic Law, Faith Function To Allah SWT, Source of Islamic Sharia, and Pillars of Faith. May be useful.