The Law of Fundraising in Islam
The phenomenon of raising funds, especially for Islamic purpose, such as the construction of mosques or donors of orphans, is very prevalent. Of course, in this case, Islam has its own views. In the Quran Allah Subhana wa Ta’ala tells how friends refrain from begging when they need it.
لِلْفُقَرَاءِ الَّذِينَ أُحْصِرُوا فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ لَا يَسْتَطِيعُونَ ضَرْبًا فِي الْأَرْضِ يَحْسَبُهُمُ الْجَاهِلُ أَغْنِيَاءَ مِنَ التَّعَفُّفِ تَعْرِفُهُمْ بِسِيمَاهُمْ لَا يَسْأَلُونَ النَّاسَ إِلْحَافًا وَمَا تُنْفِقُوا مِنْ خَيْرٍ فَإِنَّ اللَّهَ بِهِ عَلِيمٌ
“(Faithful) to the indigent who are bound (by jihad) in the way of Allah; they cannot (try) on Earth; those who do not know think they are rich because they keep themselves from begging. You know them by looking at their properties, they do not ask people urgently, and what the good treasures that you spend (in the way of Allah), then Allah is the All-Knowing.” (Surah Al-Baqarah: 273)
In the word of God above shows that basically we are forbidden to ask for fund even in conditions that are in dire need. Of course, this word can be used as a basis that raising funds also includes activities asking for a request so that the law is prohibited.
The law of raising funds in Islam is also related to the following hafist sources. Syaikh As-Sa’di said in his commentary: “This shows their true patience and how good they are in looking after themselves (from begging)”. In the hadiths the Prophet sallallaahu alaihi wa salam is very much prohibited and begging, including:
ا يَزَالُ الرَّجُلُ يَسْأَلُ النَّاسَ حَتَّى يَأْتِىَ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ لَيْسَ فِى وَجْهِهِ مُزْعَةُ لَحْمٍ
“Always someone asks the man until he comes on the Day of Judgment does not have a piece of flesh on his face”. (Narrated by Bukhori (1474))
The words of the Prophet sallallaahu alaihi wa salam in Shohih Muslim (no. 2450) in the matter of allegiance to the Prophet sallallaahu alaihi wa salam which is one of the verse clauses:
وَلاَ تَسْأَلُوا النَّاسَ شَيْئًا
“And do not ask a man for anything.”
In Targhib wa Tarhib by Imam Al Mundziri who is said to be Shaykh Al-Albani shohih lighoirihi, from Ali Rodhiyallahu anhu the Prophet sholallahu alaihi wa salam said:
من سأل الناس عن ظهر غنى استكثر بها من رضف جهنم قالوا وما ظهر غنى قال عشاء ليلة
“Whoever asks for man, when he is sufficiently sufficient, will be reproduced because of the fire of Jahannam, (the companions) say, how much size is enough, the Prophet sallallaahu alaihi wa salam replied, enough for dinner.”
And there are still many such hadiths that show that begging is haram. Some scholar classifies the creation of fund proposals including the begging category banned by the shari’ah, based on the proponents of the existing arguments. They say that the making of madrasahs, mosques, and the like is a deliberate activity that has been conceived so that it seems to him to have the consequence of the demand for funds from the philanthropists to realize the development of such facilities and infrastructures.
Rasulullah shalallahu alaihi wa salam once gave syafaat (advocate) to the companions to give charity to the Mudhor people who visited him in a state of concern and seemingly inferior. The Muslim Imam in his shahih (4830) wrote his story as follows:
جَاءَ نَاسٌ مِنْ الْأَعْرَابِ إِلَى رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ عَلَيْهِمْ الصُّوفُ فَرَأَى سُوءَ حَالِهِمْ قَدْ أَصَابَتْهُمْ حَاجَةٌ فَحَثَّ النَّاسَ عَلَى الصَّدَقَةِ
“A group of people (in another hadith is Mudhor-sects) came to Rasulullah shalallahu alaihi wa salam, they wore the wool and he saw it in concern for what had happened to them, then he advocated the companions to give charity.”
Strict history shows the existence of this syafat i.e.,
قال: كان النبي – صلى الله عليه وسلم – إذا أتاه طالب حاجة أقبل على جلسائه, فقال: ((اشفعوا تؤجروا, ويقضي الله على لسان نبيه ما أحب)) متفق عليه .وفي رواية: ((ما شاء)).
“It is the Prophet when it comes to the person who asks him for a necessity, he looks at the companions who are at his council and say: ‘Syafa’ti (help him), you will be blessed, Allah will replace him through his Prophet’s what He likes’, in another story, ‘as He pleases’. (HR Bukhori-Muslim)
Rasulullah shalallahu alaihi wa salam had once asked for aid to the Jews Bani Nadhir to help pay the ransom for the two Amir children who were accidentally killed by Amr bin Umayyad Adh-Dhamri, although at the same time even the Jews planned to kill him while waiting for help funds in front of their fortress doors. His story is contained in Zaadul Ma’ad (3/115) by Imam Ibnul Qoyyim Rakhimahullah:
وَكَلّمَهُمْ أَنْ يُعِينُوهُ فِي دِيَةِ الْكِلَابِيّيْنِ اللّذَيْنِ قَتَلَهُمَا عَمْرُو بْنُ أُمَيّةَ الضّمْرِيّ
“The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) talked to them to ask for the help of the ransom of two people (Amir) who was killed by Amr bin Umayyad Adh-Dhomri (accidentally thinking that they were both slain his companions).”
What is the concern here is that the Prophet sholallahu alaihi wa salam raises money for the sake of the Muslims i.e. that between him with the sons of Amir there is a covenant which he will not deny the agreement so that the friend no doubt Amr Radhiyallahu anhu killed two people from among them. The Prophet sholallahu alaihi wa salam must obey the agreement by paying ransom as agreed.
Based on the sources of the above arguments and hadiths, it can be concluded that the fundraising activities for the sake of the interests of the organization even though based on religious activities are generally not allowed or prohibited to do.
Whereas for the purpose of building a mosque or an orphan, it is still permissible to originate from the record that the funds raised are properly used for such purposes and not otherwise incurred. Thus, the law of raising funds in Islam is permissible with the notes giving more benefits to the people, while that based on the personal interests of the law is prohibited.