Death is a sure thing and the secret of Allah SWT. In Islam, the management of bodies is a matter that must be done well and in accordance with Islamic law. Just like respecting humans while they are still alive, taking care of their bodies must also be carried out with respect for the deceased.
But, there is one habit that is considered sunnah in the management of the body, which is to carry the adhan to the body. Many people do this with the assumption that if they are born adulthood, they will also have to die. But, how exactly does the law adhere to the body in Islam?
There is No Guidance in the Sharia Concerning the Worship of the Body
Regarding this, Ibn Hajar Al Haitsaimi Rahimahullah was once asked a similar question. He answered,
هو بدعة، ومن زعم أنه سنة عند نزول القبر قياساً على ندبها في المولود إلحاقاً لخاتمة الأمر بابتدائه فلم يصب، وأي جامع بين الأمرين، ومجرد أن ذاك في الابتداء وهذا في الانتهاء لا يقتضي لحوقه به.
“These actions have no guidance in the Sharia. Who would think of it as a sunnah which is done when descending to the grave, because the qiyas of the suggestion to carry the adhan to the newborn baby, as a form of matching between the end of life and the beginning of life, then he has been mistaken. Where is the similarity so that it can be linked? This is done at the beginning, then this is done at the end, it cannot be analogous to that.” (Al-Fatawa Al-Fiqhiyyah Al-Kubro 3/24)
Prohibition of Adhan and Iqamah in Graves
Likewise with the explanation given by the Lajnah Dâ-imah (Fatwa Commission of Saudi Arabian scholars) which was signed by Shaykh Abdulaziz bin Baz, Shaykh Abdurrazaq Afifi, Shaykh Abdullah Ghudyan, and Syaikh Abdullah bin Qu’ud,
لا يجوز الأذان ولا الإقامة عند القبر بعد دفن الميت ، ولا في القبر قبل دفنه ؛ لأن ذلك بدعة محدثة..
“It is not permissible to carry adhan or iqamah in the cemetery after burying the body, or before, because this action has no guidance and is a new matter in religion.” (Li Al-Ifta’ 9/72)
Sheikh Shalih bin Fauzan said,
أما بعد خروج الروح فإن الميت لا يلقن لا قبل الدفن ولا بعد الدفن، ولم يرد بذلك سنة صحيحة عن النبي ـ صلى الله عليه وسلم ـ فيما نعلم، وإنما استحب تلقين الميت بعد دفنه جماعة من العلماء، وليس لهم دليل ثابت عن النبي ـ صلى الله عليه وسلم ـ لأن الحديث الوارد في ذلك مطعون في سنده، فعلى هذا يكون التلقين بعد الدفن لا أصل له من سنة الرسول صلى الله عليه وسلم، وإنما قال به بعض العلماء اعتمادًا على حديث غير ثابت .
فالتلقين بعد الدفن لا أصل له في السنة، وإنما التلقين المشروع هو عند الاحتضار، لأنه هو الذي ينفع المحتضر ويعقله المحتضر لأنه مازال على قيد الحياة ويستطيع النطق بهذه الكلمة وهو لا يزال في دار العمل، أما بعد الموت فقد انتهى العمل
“As for the release of life, the majority is not ruled, whether before being buried or after, and as far as we know there is no saheeh hadith from the Prophet Sallallaahu ‘Alaihi Wa Sallam in this matter. It is just that some scholars recommend it after the majority are buried, but they do not have a fixed proposition from the Prophet Sallallaahu ‘Alaihi Wa Sallam, because the hadiths that they made are arguments in their sanad, therefore talqin after the burial is of no origin from the sunnah of the Prophet Sallallaahu ‘Alaihi Wa Sallam, only some scholars advocate because they hold on to a fixed hadith.”
Talqin after Burial is not in the Sunnah
“So, talqin after burial has no origin in the sunnah, and talqin which is implied is when you want to die, because that is what benefits people who want to die and he can understand because he is still alive and able to pronounce this sentence, and he is still in the land, as for after death, the charity is finished.” (Al-Muntaqa min Fatawa Al-Fauzan 131)
No Apostle gave an example to carry the adhan to the body when burying it so that the practice is considered as bid’ah. The friend of Uthman Ibn Affan Radhiyallahu ‘Anhu said,
كَانَ النَّبِيُّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ إِذَا فَرَغَ مِنْ دَفْنِ الْمَيِّتِ وَقَفَ عَلَيْهِ فَقَالَ اسْتَغْفِرُوا لِأَخِيكُمْ وَسَلُوا لَهُ بِالتَّثْبِيتِ فَإِنَّهُ الْآنَ يُسْأَلُ
The habit of the Prophet Sallallaahu ‘Alaihi Wa Sallam after burying the body, he stood near his grave and said, “Pray forgiveness for your brothers and pray that he is given determination, because right now he is being asked.” (Abu Dawud)
Ibnul Qosim Rahimahullah in Ar Raudh Al-Murbi’s Hajj’ stated,
وقال ابن المنذر رحمه الله : “قال بمشروعيته ـ الدعاء ـ الجمهور ، وقال الآجري وغيره : يستحب الوقوف بعد الدفن قليلاً ، والدعاء للميت
Ibnul Mundzir Rahimahullah said, “The opinion given by prayer for the majority (after burying) is the opinion of the majority of scholars.”
Al-Ajurri and others said, “It is recommended to stand for a while after burying, and then pray for the deceased.”
Adhan and Iqamah on the Way to Bury the Body is Sunnah
Sheikh Ibrahim al-Baijuri in Hasyiyah Al-Baijuri explained,
ويسن الأذان والإقامة أيضا خلف المسافر ولا يسن الأذان عند إنزال الميت القبر خلافا لمن قال بسنيته قياسا لخروجه من الدنيا على دخوله فيها قال ابن حجر ورددته في شرح العباب لكن إن وافق إنزاله القبر بأذان خفف عنه في السؤال
“It is Sunnah to carry the adhan and iqamah when they are traveling and are not blessed when burying a dead body. This opinion is different from the scholars who gave the call to prayer because they equated the law by ignoring the newborn child. Ibn Hajar said, “I rejected him in Syarah Al-Bubab, but if the burial of a corpse was accompanied by a call to prayer, the corpse would be lightened in answering the question in the tomb.”
It is Recommended to Lead Someone Say the Sentence of Tawhid During Sakratul Maut
Whereas when a human being is greeting the state of death, then it is recommended to lead him to pronounce the sentence of tawhid.
The Prophet Sallallaahu ‘Alaihi Wa Sallam said,
لقنوا موتاكم لا إله إلا الله
“Lead people who want to die (to say) Laa ilaaha illallah.” (Narrated by Muslim, from Abu Sa’id Al-Khudry)
مَعْنَاهُ مَنْ حَضَرَهُ الْمَوْت ، وَالْمُرَاد ذَكِّرُوهُ لَا إِلَه إِلَّا اللَّه لِتَكُونَ آخِر كلامه
“Meaning: One who is being visited by death, that is to say: Remind him of laa ilaaha illallah so that it will be the end of his words.” (Syarh Muslim 6/219)
Prophet Sallallaahu ‘Alaihi Wa Sallam also said,
من كان آخر كلامه لا إله إلا الله دخل الجنة
“Whoever has the last say ‘laa ilaaha illallah’ will enter heaven.” (Narrated by Abu Dawud, from Mua’dz bin Jabal, and Sheikh Al-Albany)
When his uncle Abu Talib wanted to die the Prophet Sallallaahu ‘Alaihi Wa Sallam visited him and asked him while saying,
أي عَمِّ ، قل لا إله إلا الله ، كلمةً أُحَاجُّ لك بها عند الله
“O my uncle, say ‘laa ilaaha illallahu’, a sentence that I will judge with you for you beside Allah.” (Muttafaqun ‘Alaihi)
That is a brief explanation of the law committing the body in Islam. I hope this article is helpful for all of us.
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