Law of Ramadan Fasting for The Traveller
The traveler comes from the Arabic verb meaning safara which means traveling. So in the broad sense the traveler means the person who travels. The word safarin itself means travel. As mentioned in the Qur’an :
وَإِنْ كُنْتُمْ عَلَى سَفَرٍ وَلَمْ تَجِدُوا كَاتِبًا فَرِهَانٌ مَقْبُوضَةٌ… [البقرة/283]
“And if you are on a journey, and do not find a writer, then let there be a guarantee (which can be held).”
At the time of the Prophet’s journey during this being a Musafir is part of the form of da’wah. Allah SWT advises people to travel all over the face of this earth. As in His following words:
It is He who made the earth tame for you – so walk among its slopes and eat of His provision – and to Him is the resurrection [QS. Al-Mulk : 15].
A traveler or those who are on the way, describes the relief in the form of lightening in performing the obligatory prayers and fasting as the law of the fasting a week before Ramadan. Obviously this is based on clear laws and regulations and the obligation to keep fasting on another day as the intention of fasting for ramadhan. Therefore, in this article will be discussed about the Law of Ramadan Fasting for the Musafir and his argument.
Read also :
The Law of Ramadan Fasting For the Musafir
Allah Subhanahu wa Ta’ala said,
“and whoever is ill or on a journey – then an equal number of other days” (Qs. al-Baqara: 185).
The Companions who came out on the journey with the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam, among them there is a breaking fast and there are fasting, while the Prophet himself fasted on the way,
“And it is permissible to leave fast for a traveler on a distant and permissible trip (mubah). If by fasting a traveler experiencing harm then breaking more mainstream, if not then fasting more main as has been through his explanation in the chapter prayer travelers.
If in the morning a person who dwells fast then he is sick then he is allowed to break the fasting for reasons that allow him to break the fasting.
But if the mukim is traveling then he is not allowed to break the fasting by winning the law for the one who is not traveling. It is also said he may break by winning the law for the traveler.
If a traveler (the person is already away) and the sick person on the morning fasting then want to break the fasting then it is permissible for both to break the fast because of the continuing reason for both not to fast.
If a traveler has settled and a sick person has healed then it is unlawful for both of them to break their fast according to valid opinion because of the loss of reason not to fast.
The second opinion allows both of them to break their bounds by considering the situation at the beginning of the day. “(Jalaludin Al-Mahali, Kanzur Raghibin Syarh Minhajut Thalibin [Cairo: Darul Hadith, 2014], juz 2, p.161)
A similar explanation was also made by Sheikh Muhammad Khatib As-Syarbini in his book Mughnil Muhtaj. It’s just that he added an explanation:
وَلَوْ نَوَى وَسَافَرَ لَيْلًا، فَإِنْ جَاوَزَ قَبْلَ الْفَجْرِ مَا اُعْتُبِرَ مُجَاوَزَتُهُ فِي صَلَاةِ الْمُسَافِرِ أَفْطَرَ، وَإِلَّا فَلَا
“If someone intends to fast and travel at night, if before dawn he has passed the limits set in his prayer chapters then he may break the fast, otherwise he should not break the fast.” (Muhammad Khatib As-Syarbini, Mughnil Muhtaj : Darul Fikr, 2009], juz 1, p. 589).
It can be concluded that the Ramadan Fasting Law for the Musafir is based on the following three conditions:
1. If It is hard for Fasting then It is Suggested to Not Fasting
The case of this can be seen in the hadith of Jabir bin ‘Abdillah. Jabir said,
كَانَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ – صلى الله عليه وسلم – فِى سَفَرٍ ، فَرَأَى زِحَامًا ، وَرَجُلاً قَدْ ظُلِّلَ عَلَيْهِ ، فَقَالَ « مَا هَذَا » . فَقَالُوا صَائِمٌ . فَقَالَ « لَيْسَ مِنَ الْبِرِّ الصَّوْمُ فِى السَّفَرِ
“The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said when he saw the throng. Then there is someone who is given shade. Then the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam said, “Who is this?”
People also say, “This is a fasting person.” Then the Prophet sallallaahu’ alaihi wa sallam said, “It is not good if someone fasts when he is“ . Here it is said not to fast fast when safar because when it is a difficult condition. (Read Useful Dua for Journey in Islam)
2. If Not Incriminating then it is allowed to do fasting
From Abu Darda ‘, he said,
خَرَجْنَا مَعَ النَّبِىِّ – صلى الله عليه وسلم – فِى بَعْضِ أَسْفَارِهِ فِى يَوْمٍ حَارٍّ حَتَّى يَضَعَ الرَّجُلُ يَدَهُ عَلَى رَأْسِهِ مِنْ شِدَّةِ الْحَرِّ ، وَمَا فِينَا صَائِمٌ إِلاَّ مَا كَانَ مِنَ النَّبِىِّ – صلى الله عليه وسلم – وَابْنِ رَوَاحَةَ
“We once came out with the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam in some safar on a pretty hot day. So when people put their hands on their heads because the weather is so hot. None of us fasted. Only the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam only and Ibnu Rowahah who fasted at that time
If it is not too difficult when safar, then fasting is better due to faster discharge obligations. So it is easier to do because fasting with the crowd is more fun than mengqodho ‘fasting alone while people do not fast
From Jabir bin ‘Abdillah, he said
أَنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ -صلى الله عليه وسلم- خَرَجَ عَامَ الْفَتْحِ إِلَى مَكَّةَ فِى رَمَضَانَ فَصَامَ حَتَّى بَلَغَ كُرَاعَ الْغَمِيمِ فَصَامَ النَّاسُ ثُمَّ دَعَا بِقَدَحٍ مِنْ مَاءٍ فَرَفَعَهُ حَتَّى نَظَرَ النَّاسُ إِلَيْهِ ثُمَّ شَرِبَ فَقِيلَ لَهُ بَعْدَ ذَلِكَ إِنَّ بَعْضَ النَّاسِ قَدْ صَامَ فَقَالَ « أُولَئِكَ الْعُصَاةُ أُولَئِكَ الْعُصَاةُ
“Verily the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam came out in the year of Fathul Makkah (8 H) to Makkah in the month of Ramadan. He fasted then. Then when it reached Kuroo ‘Al Ghomim (a valley between Mecca and Medina), the people were still fasting. Then he asked for a glass of water.
Then he picked it up and people paid attention to him. Then he drank the water. After he did this, some said, “Surely some people are still fasting.” The Prophet sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam also said, “They are disobedient people. They are disobedient people. ” The Prophet sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam strongly criticized for fasting in conditions very, very difficult like this is something reprehensible.
That is, the Law of Ramadan Fasting For the Musafir and his argument. Hopefully it can be a source and reference in interpreting ramadhan as the requirement for the fasting of Ramadhan, Ramadhan month and its fadillah, and the pillars of Ramadan fasting, so it can be more solemn in running it. Hopefully this article can be useful