Allah said, “Only the prosperity of the mosques of Allah are the people who believe in Allah and the day after, and still establish the prayer, perform zakat and not be afraid (to anyone) other than Allah, then they are the people who are expected to belong to the group of people who got instructions.” (QS. At-Tawbah 9:18)
Mosques are Muslim places of worship that have many functions. Here are some of the functions of mosques in Islam:
- Place of Worship
The main function of the mosque is indeed a place of worship. This is where Muslims perform prayers, both obligatory prayers or fard prayers and Sunnah prayers. The word mosque itself comes from Arabic “sajada, yasjudu, sujûdan”, which means “prostration.”
Allah said in the Qur’an Surah al-Jin (72): 18: “And in fact, the mosques belong to Allah. Then, do not worship anyone in it beside (worshiping) Allah.”
From the history of Jabir bin Abdullah, the Messenger of Allah said: “It has been made for me (and for my people) a mosque and a means of purification of self.”
- Places of Other Worships
Allah says in Surah An-Nur (24): 36-37, which means:
“It was revealed to Allah in mosques which had been ordered to be glorified and called His name in it, in the morning and evening time. Men are not neglected by commerce and not (also) by buying and selling of remembrance of Allah, and (of) paying zakat.”
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“They were afraid of a day that (in that day) heart and vision were shaken. (They did this) so that God would reward them (with a reward) better than what they had done, and that God would add His gift to them. And God gives blessings to those whom He wants without limits. ”
- Place of Education
Mosques are not only places of worship, but also as a place for disseminating education or science. In mosques, many activities are carried out to add knowledge such as preaching or recitation.
From Abdullah bin Umar that someone was standing in the mosque then he asked, “O Messenger of Allah, from which direction did you order us to start reading talbiyah aloud?” Rasulullah SAW answered.
“The residents of Medina read Talbiyah violently from the area of Dhul Khulaifah, the inhabitants of Sham from the direction of Juhfah, and the inhabitants of Najd from Qorn. Abdullah said, “The news has come to me that the Messenger of Allah said, “The Yemeni population read Talbiyah violently from the direction of Salam.” (Hadith issued by Bukhari, Al-Lu’lu’wal Majan, no. 735)
- Place of Deliberation
The mosque is a place full of tranquility so it is very suitable as a place of consultation. Muslims can conduct deliberations in mosques about various cases more calmly because the mosque is far from the devil which can cause disruption during deliberations.
- Court Place
A mosque far from Satan is the right place to hold a trial in various cases. In mosques, people can make decisions more calmly.
Malik said (Department of Religion DIY, 2003: 9):
“The implementation of qadha (judiciary) in mosques is a habit that has long been lived, and in prosecuting anything. The mosque’s yard can be used as a seat so that weak people, idolaters or menstruating women can attend the event held at the mosque. The implementation of hudud (punishment) should not be carried out in the mosque.”
- Welcome Messenger
In the time of the Prophet, the mosque was also a place to welcome messengers. One of them was when the Messenger of Allah welcomed a messenger from Christian Najran. At that time, the number of groups was 60 people with 14 Christian dignitaries in it.
They were invited to enter the mosque using their robes and dialogue with the Apostle regarding Prophet Isa.
From Utman Ibn Yemen, he said, “When the Muhajirins flooded the city of Medina without a house and a place to live, the Messenger of Allāh put them in the mosque and he named them Ashabush Shuffah. He also sat with them in a very friendly manner.” (Narrated by Baihaqi)
- Place of Marriage Contract
As we know that mosques are also often used as a place to carry out the marriage contract. Many couples choose to do a marriage contract in a mosque because of the sanctity of this place.
Ayesha RA said that the Prophet Muhammad said: “Preach this marriage and organize it in the mosque, then beat tambourines.” (Narrated by Tirmidzi, Al Misykah, juz. II, no. 3152)
- War Training Place
From Ayesha RA, he said: “I saw the Prophet (SAW) blocking (my view) with his turban, even though I was watching the people of Habasha who were playing in the mosque, so I came out (wanting to see them again). I expect to still like playing.” (Sahih Bukhari with the direction of Ibn Hajar, juz IX, no. 5236)
Ibn Hajar Al Asqalani commented on the hadith that what was meant by playing in the hadith was “war training”, not merely playing. But in it is to practice courage in the battlefields and courage to face the enemy.”
Meanwhile, Ibn Mahlab said, “The mosque is a place to give security to the Muslims. Any actions that produce benefits for religion and for their families can be done at the mosque. (Fathul Bari, Ibnu Hajar, juz. II, p. 96)
- Place of Treatment
Aisha RA said, “On the day of the Khandaq war, Sa’ad bin Mu’adz suffered injuries due to being harvested by someone from the infidel of Quraysh. Khabban bin Araqah said the man arched Sa’ad on his neck. So, the Prophet made a tent at the mosque so he could go home (rest) from a short distance.”
Mosques are also the best place to take refuge, both from disasters and attacks. When disaster comes, mosques whose buildings are stronger than other buildings become the safest sanctuary. The mosque will also always be protected by Allah SWT.
- Place of Religious Defense
A mosque is a place for Muslims where it contains people who will always defend the religion of Allah. The mosque has become the center of the spread of Islam which will never be deserted.
Those are 12 functions of mosques in Islam. Narrated by Imam at-Tirmidhi (5/12 and 277), Ibn Majah (no. 802), Ahmad (3/68 and 76), and Al-Hakim (1/322 and 2/363) from Abu Sa’id al- Khudri radhiallahu’anhu said that the Prophet sallallaahu’alaihi wasallam said: “If you see a servant who always visits the mosque, witness his faith”.