In Al Fiqhul Muyassar explained about excrement, In Islam, unclean is dirt. The term impurities here are all forms, aromas, and colors that must be cleaned because it brings mudharat.
النجاسة: هي كل عين مستقذرة أمر الشارع باجتنابها
“Najasah is every thing that is considered dirty that is ordered by the Shari’ah to stay away” (Al Fiqhul Muyassar fi Dhau’il Kitab was Sunnah (1/35))
However, not everything we consider dirty is impure in Islam. This is because basically everything that exist in this world is originally sacred unless there is an argument that categorizes it into impure. This was also explained in Ershad Ulil Bashair wa Albab li Nailil Fiqhi (19-21) by Shaykh Abdurrahman bin Nashir As Sa’di,
يجب أن يعلم أن الأصل في جميع الأشياء الطهارة فلا تنجس و لا ينجس منها إلا ما دل عليه الشرع
“It must be known that the law of origin of every things is sacred, so it cannot be said that something is impure or defiled unless there is an argument from the Shari’a”
Therefore, we cannot arbitrarily determine what is unclean and not as we wish. Many propositions show the obligation to clean impure. One of them is the proposition below,
From Ibn Abbas radhiallahu’anhu, Rasulullah sallallaahu ‘anihi Wasallam said:
مَرَّ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ عَلَى قَبْرَيْنِ فَقَالَ أَمَا إِنَّهُمَا لَيُعَذَّبَانِ وَمَا يُعَذَّبَانِ فِي كَبِيرٍ أَمَّا أَحَدُهُمَا فَكَانَ يَمْشِي بِالنَّمِيمَةِ وَأَمَّا الآخَرُ فَكَانَ لا يَسْتَتِرُ مِنْ بَوْلِهِ
“Rasulullah SAW Shallallahu’alaihi passed by two graves. Then he said: “These two people are being punished, and they are punished not because of grave sins. The first person was punished for doing namimah (sheep fighting). As for the second, he was tried because he did not cleanse himself of the rest of his urine “” (HR. Muslim no. 292).
However, of the many types of impure, there are impure which must be cleaned in a special way that is heavy impure or impure mughallazah. Impure Mughallazah must be cleaned using a mixture of water and soil.
As for what is included in the type of unclean Mughals are saliva, urine, blood, and feces from dogs and pigs.
While the way to clean unclean mughallazah is to use water and soil as mentioned in a history.
Rasulullah sallallaahu’alaihi Wasallam said:
طَهُورُ إِنَاءِ أَحَدِكُمْ إِذَا وَلَغَ فِيهِ الْكَلْبُ، أَنْ يَغْسِلَهُ سَبْعَ مَرَّاتٍ أُولَاهُنَّ بِالتُّرَابِ
“The way to purify a vessel from someone among you if you lick a dog is to wash it seven times, the first laundry uses soil” (Narrated by Al Bukhari no. 182, Muslim no. 279)
Many other propositions also show how to purify the same unclean mughallazah,
طَهُورُ إِنَاءِ أَحَدِكُمْ إِذْ وَلَغَ فِيهِ اَلْكَلْبُ أَنْ يَغْسِلَهُ سَبْعَ مَرَّاتٍ أُولاهُنَّ بِالتُّرَابِ – أَخْرَجَهُ مُسْلِمٌ
From Abi Hurairah radhiyallahuanhu that the Prophet Muhammad said, “The sanctity of your water container that dogs drink is by washing it seven times one of them with the ground. (HR. Muslim)
عَنْ أَبيِ هُرَيْرَةَ أَنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ قَالَ إِذَا شَرِبَ الكَلْبُ فيِ إِنَاءِ أَحَدِكُمْ فَلْيَغْسِلْهُ سَبْعًا-متفق عليه
From Abi Hurairah radhiyallahuanhu that Rasulullah SAW said “If a dog drinks from your water container, it must be washed seven times..(HR. Bukhari dan Muslim).
Even though the argument only mentions unclean originating from dogs, this does not mean that pigs are not included as unclean.
In the book Al-Majmu ’Syarah Al-Muhadzdab, Al-Imam An-Nawawi explains about how to clean unclean mughallazah from pigs as follows:
mوإن ولغ الخنزير فقد قال ابن القاص: قال في القديم: يغسل مرة واحدة وقال سائر أصحابنا يحتاج إلى سبع مرات وقوله في القديم مطلق لأنه قال يغسل وأراد به سبع مرات والدليل عليه أن الخنزير أسوأ من الكلب على ما بيناه فهو باعتبار العدد أولى
when a pig drinks (from a container) then according to Ibn Al-Qash in qaul qadim it is enough to be washed just once. But all of our scholars (in the Asy-Shafi’ite school) require washing seven times. Even if it is mentioned that in qaul qadim must be washed (without mentioning seven times) then the correct intention is to wash seven times. As the argument that said the pig is worse than the dog as we have mentioned. So in terms of the amount of washing must be more than a dog.
The same treatment of unclean originating from pigs is based on the word of Allah SWT, “Verily Allah only forbids you carcasses, blood, pork, and animals that are called other than Allah. But whoever is in a state of compulsion while he does not want it and does not cross the line, then there is no sin for him. Truly Allah is Forgiving, Most Merciful. “(Surat al-Baqarah: 173)
Therefore, both dogs and pigs are heavy unclean who get the same treatment when cleaned. Thus this short article. Hopefully this article is useful and adds to our religious knowledge.