Law of Fasting Before 1st Ramadhan
Indeed there are some matters and knowledge that should be concerned when welcoming the holy month of Ramadhan, including a rules of sunnah fasting before the coming of Ramadan as things should not be done by husband and wife in the month of Ramadhan. As a good Muslim, we must have heard about the prohibition or suggestion not to fast when Ramadhan will come isn’t it? As Muslims know that month of Ramadhan full of blessing, a month that worship will be rewarded multiplied, a month full of virtues. Thus in order to get reward we should know about any kind of prohibition that could probably decreased our worship to Allah SWT in the month of Ramadhan. Also read : virtue of the last 10 days of Ramadhan
Yes, since most Muslims who perform fasting before Ramadhan is just to do sunnah fasting alone without any other intentions. The hadith that speaks about this matter is mentioned by Ibn Hajar in Bulughul Marom hadith no. 650 as follows :
From Abu Hurairah radhiyallahu ‘anhu, he said that Rasulullah shallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam said :
لاَ تَقَدَّمُوا رَمَضَانَ بِصَوْمِ يَوْمٍ وَلاَ يَوْمَيْنِ إِلاَّ رَجُلٌ كَانَ يَصُومُ صَوْمًا فَلْيَصُمْهُ
“Do not all of you fast one or two days before Ramadan unless someone who has a fasting habit, then he may fast.” (Narrated by Bukhari 1914 and Muslim No. 1082)
Some phrases or benefits that can be derived from the above hadith are :
- The existence of an appeal of prohibition that aimed to Muslims for not performing sunnah fasting one day or two days before the coming of Ramadan.
- The prohibition expressed in this hadith is prohibited to be unlawful until the discovery of another hadith that will reject and justify other things such as the reward of studying in the month of Ramadhan.
- Unless someone does have a routine or a habit that literally has been accustomed to doing Monday and Thursday sunna fasting without only do it just in the beginning of Ramadhan. Also read : rules of seeking knowledge in Islam
- For fasting nadzar, obligatory fasting and kafaroh are also allowed or replacing Ramadhan fasting that previously could not be replaced, this is not included in the list of prohibition on the hadith such as the law of divorce in the month of Ramadhan.
- Indeed, there is a lesson that we can learn where it is highly recommended to distinguish which one is mandatory and which one is sunna and fasting in the month of Ramadhan is the obligatory that one must be fulfilled. This is also an effort to make us more diligent and motivated to fast. Where the above hadith is also related to the existence of an upcoming law of the beginning of the month or hilal which will be very deviated from the provisions of the law if there is an earlier fasting before Ramadhan. Another hadith that reads :
إِذَا انْتَصَفَ شَعْبَانُ فَلاَ تَصُومُوا
“If you have reached half of the Sha’ban month, do not fast” (Narrated by Abu Daud no. 2337)
This is one of the hadiths which states that indeed fasting in Sha’ban month is still allowed until mid-month. But still it all depends on the intention, it must be seen from the one intention when they want to perform fasting, just like the reward of Dhuha prayer in Ramadhan. Since no one can judge exactly Islamic law except the creator of Allah SWT. Also read : prayer for getting life partner in Ramadhan
Islam actually provides limitation in preparing for welcoming the month of Ramadhan. As the study of below hadith. The disadvantage is that some scholars of Asy-Shafi’iyah and some of the scholars of the Al-Hanabilah. His point is in the following hadith :
عن أبي هريرة عن النبي صلى الله عليه و سلم قال: إذا انتصف شعبان فلا تصوموا حتى رمضان ” ، و صححه الترمذي و غيره
“From Abu Hurairah ra. from the Prophet SAW he said, “If the month of Sha’ban is already a half of it, then do not fast until Ramadhan.” (Narrated by Tirmidhi)
لا صوم بعد النصف من شعبان حتى رمضان
“It is not allowed to fast after Nifsu Sha’ban until Ramadhan.” (Narrated by At-Tahawi)
The Debate Between Scholars
Actually not all scholars declare the law of fasting a day or 2 days before Ramadhan is haram, they only give a law of makhruh (allowed but better not be done). In fact there are also scholars who did not mention anything that is prohibited when welcoming Ramadhan. Also read : law of abandoning fasting intentionally
Since so many who doubt the authenticity of the hadith. In addition, many scholars believe in Rasulullah SAW who even practiced fasting in Sha’ban month and linked him to fasting in the month of Ramadan.
.كان أحبّ الشّهور إلى رسول اللّه صلى الله عليه وسلم أن يصومه شعبان ، بل كان يصله برمضان
“From Aisyah ra. said, “The most favored month of Rasulullah SAW to fast is the month of Sha’ban. He even connects it with the fast of Ramadhan.”
عائشة رضي الله تعالى عنها قالت: ما رأيت رسول اللّه صلى الله عليه وسلم أكثر صياماً منه في شعبان
“From Aisyah ra. said, “I never saw Rasulullah SAW fasting more than in the month of Sha’ban.”
This also make a difference of opinion among scholars, where some allow by proclaiming the forbidden hadith is the type of hadith munkar. And there are some that only stated it is makhruh (allowed but better not be done). However, if indeed fasting is done before Ramadhan with the intention to Qada the past fast then it is not forbidden or it is already accustomed with the fasting of Monday and Thursday. Also read : virtues of lailatul Qadr Night
Because after all, it is Allah SWT who will decide and give justice as fair as possible. Whatever it is, it all depends on the sincerity and the intentions that had been used. Since in fact fasting is a good deed and not a munkar vile act, or basically fasting is a great worship and in any kind of way give a lot of benefit for all Muslims in the world.