One of the greatest give for humanity from Allah is Islam. Islam, not only teaches us to be a worthy and humble worshiper. Islam is a way of life, way to be better as human and God’s servant so we can make the world a good place. That is why Islam regulates everything, every inch of our life, that includes hunting.
In the beginning of the civilization, human hunts to fulfill their needs, avoid starvation, and ensure their survival. That time human still lives as nomadic people. But then they settle down and learn how to farm and grow crops. But, hunting is still practiced to fulfill the needs of foods. Nowadays, hunting became a hobby which can be enjoyed as a sports. But how does Islam regulates hunting activity?
In Arabic, hunting derived from as said with masdar sada which means catch or catching and reaping so in the context of game animal the purpose of catching the animal is not for sale. Fiqh scholars agree that the law for hunting is mubah or permitted. But it will quickly turns into haram or forbidden if the hunting takes time when doing hajj or umrah. As it stated in Al Ma’idah verse 2 that someone who finished their hajj or umrah is allowed to hunt.
“Not one person allowed to kill even a sparrow or anything smaller, not according to its right and Allah will ask them in the judgement day. Rasulullah was asked ‘what is the bird’s right Rasulullah?’ He answered, ‘that after the bird is butchered it gets to be eaten not thrown away’”. [Nasa’i and Hakim]
Mazhab Scholars about Hunting
Scholars explained about the regulation for hunting according to the purpose of the hunt. Hunting is mubah it means that it is allowed if for consumption, its sunnah when its used to fulfill the falimy’s needs, and obligatory when the survival is concerned, in other words emergency. It also will turn into makruh when hunting was done for entertainment and recreational purpose. Also, Haram if the hunter only wanted to torture the catch and abuse the animal. (See also: Eating Habits in Islam)
1. Regulation on Bringing a Hunting Dog
Scholar from Syafi’i school have their opinion that if the hunted animal has been bitten by dog the animal is haram and needs to be cleaned seven times with a mixture of water and dirt. After that the game animal is permitted and good.
Meanwhile the scholars from the other three great school, Maliki, Hambali, and Hanafi. States that the bite mark of the dog is halal and it is permitted to be eaten. It doesn’t have to be cleaned. Dog’s bite mark is halal and the game animal also will be halal. But, the condition is the dog is well trained.
a. Halal Become Khilaful Awla
From Al Hanafiyah’s perspective, the regulation can change from halal into khilaful awla which contradict. When the hunting activity was done during the night time. But, it differs from al hanabilah from Al Mughni that states it permitted.
b. Halal Become Makruh
This is adopted from Hadith Al Iman Muslim, “Don’t you kill an animal who has soul”.
“Whoever kills a sparrow with the intention of playing, then on the Day of Resurrection the bird will complain to Allah; he said: ‘O my Lord! That guy has killed me by playing games, but not killing me for the benefit’” [Nasa’i and Ibnu Hibban]
c. Halal Become Haram
Theologians states that the law can turns hunting into haram according to several conditions. Even though the hunting itself is Halal. The conditions is applied when someone doing Ihram. In Al Quran, the holy guide, states it clearly that it is not permitted and forbidden to hunt, for someone during their ihram. (See also: Importance of Time in Islam)
In the Land of Haram (Al Haram)
Animals that lives in the land of haram called harami, it is forbidden to hunt them according to Al Quran. “Do not they see that We have made it a safe animal?” (Al-Maidah: 96)
- Hunt Someone Else’s Animal
Hunting an animal that belongs to someone else is forbidden, clearly. Because the owner of the animal would not want the animal to be hunt and killed. It is also means that the hunted animal is not a wild, it is owned and have an owner.
- Hunting Protected Animal
Nowadays, a lot of illegal hunting activities happens to the nearly extinct and protected animals, it is increasing day after day. That’s why world organization and governments banned some of the animals to be hunted. They even started program for protect and reserve with the purpose to prevent the animal’s extinction.
Yes its not from Islamic rules, the prohibition is not from rasulullah or Al Quran directly. But as a moslem it is our responsibility to preserve and conserve the nature as it is. So every living creature in this beautiful earth can live together harmoniously. This is the basis to the prohibition to hunt animal who in the verge of extinction. (See also: Importance of Jummah in Islam)
Halal Become Obligatory
Hunting can also turn into obligation for moslem, from halal to obligatory activities, it is if the game animals are considered to be disturbing and pose a threat to human or human settlements. It is also an obligation to kill the animal if that animal threatening a human. Although it is nt for consumption, this kind of hunting is permitted, even is a must.
This kind of hunting ensure the safety and well being of humans that is why it is a obligation. Islam never neglects human, let alone its worshiper to die in vain. Example, an animal enters the human settlement and posing a danger, snake for example, then the owner of the house search and killed the snake. (see also: Quran Verses about Love)
In the end we have to distinct the difference between killing and hunting. Although both involving the process of killing a creature, the purpose of them both different. Everything in the face of earth is Allah’s. So respect the nature, treat the animals with respect, and don’t let them die in vain.
That is the end of the explanation we hope its useful to you.