Hajj is an annual Islamic pilgrimage to Mecca, the holy city of Muslims, and a compulsory obligation for Muslims to be undertaken at least once in their lifetime by all adult Muslims who are physically and financially capable of traveling, and can support their families during their absence. This is one of the five Pillars of Islam, in addition to the Shahadat, Salat, Zakat, and Sawm.
Hajj is the largest annual meeting of people in the world. The physical and financial condition capable of performing the pilgrimage is called istita’ah, and a qualified Muslim is called Mustati. Hajj is a demonstration of the solidarity of Muslims, and their submission to God (Allah). The word Hajj means “intend to travel”, which connotes both the outward actions of the journey and action into intent.
Hajj occurs from the 8th to the 12th (or in some cases to the 13th) of Zulhijjah, the last month of the Islamic calendar. Since the Islamic calendar is the month and year of Islam approximately eleven days shorter than the Gregorian calendar, the Gregorian Hajj dates from year to year.
Ihram is a name given to a special spiritual state in which pilgrims wear two white sheets of fine cloth. And keep away from certain actions.
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Definition of Hajj
In lughawi, hajj means deliberate or heading and visiting. According to Arabic etymology, the word hajj has the meaning qashd, ie purpose, intention, and deliberate. According to syara ‘term, the pilgrim is to go to the Baitullah and certain places to perform certain deeds of worship as well. What is meant by certain places in the above definition.
Besides Ka’bah and Mas’a (sa’i place), also Arafat, Muzdalifah, and Mina. What is meant by a certain time is the month of pilgrimage that begins from Shawwal until the first ten days of the month of Zulhijah. The particular deeds of worship are thawaf, sa’i, wukuf, mazbit in Muzdalifah, catapulting jumrah, mabit in Mina, and others. Read more about Importance of Self Reflection in Night in Islam
The Hajj is associated with the life of Prophet Muhammad’s Mohammed from the 7th century, but the pilgrimage ritual to Mecca was considered by Muslims to stretch thousands of years until Abraham.
During pilgrimage, pilgrims join the procession of hundreds of thousands of people, who simultaneously gather in Mecca during the Hajj week, and perform a series of rituals:
- everyone walks counter-clockwise seven times around the Kaaba (cube-shaped Building and direction of prayer for Muslims ),
- running back and forth between the Al-Safa and Al-Marwah hills, the drink from the Zamzam Well, u
- p to the plains of Mount Arafat in case,
- spent one night on the Muzdalifah Plain,
- stoned the demon by throwing stones at the three pillar.
The pilgrims then shave their heads, perform animal sacrifice rituals, and celebrate the three-day global Idul Adha festival. For more detail, we will, show you step by step of Hajj
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Activity During Hajj
In the Fiqh Literature, described the ways in performing the Hajj ritual, and the main congregation follows the guide book and obeys it to fulfill all the obligations of Hajj perfectly. In performing the Hajj pilgrims, pilgrims not only follow the Prophet’s ordinances, but also commemorate the events associated with Ibrahim. In addition, there are several things to consider in the implementation of the pilgrimage.
When the congregation reaches the intention in the heart of Miqat (certain limits of place or time of pilgrims intend to perform the Hajj), to enter a holy state – known as Ihram – worshipers wearing special clothing; wearing only two pieces of white cloth without sutures for men, with one cloth covering around the waist reaching the bottom of the knee and other cloth in wear on the left shoulder binding on the right side. Read more about How to Improve Faith in Islam
Meanwhile, wearing ordinary clothes for women by fulfilling the condition of Islamic Muslim dress with their hands and face not closed; take ablution; planned the will (niyah) to perform the Hajj and to abstain from prohibited things such as cutting nails, shaving any part of the body, having sexual intercourse; using perfumes, damaging plants, killing animals, covering heads (for men) or faces and palms (for women); doing marriage; or take up arms.
The Ihram has the meaning that every poor and rich people are equal before God: there is no difference between them.
Then, in the pilgrimage performed the name Tawaf. Tawaf’s ritual is to walk seven times in a clockwise direction around the Ka’ba. When they arrived at Masjidil Haram, the congregation performed the arrival tawaf which was also part of Umrah or as welcome tawaf. At tawaf, the congregation also entered Hateem – a region on the north side of the Ka’ba – in their path. Read more about The Virtue of Dhikr to Allah SWT
Each round begins by kissing or touching the Black Stone (Hajar Aswad). If kissing the stone is not possible because of the congregation density, they simply align themselves with the direction of the Black Stone by kissing their own hands when tawaf.
Eating is not allowed but drinking water is still allowed, due to the risk of dehydration. The man recommended to make the first three rounds quickly known as Ramal, and followed four other rounds not too fast.
To completing tawaf worship, the pilgrims doing the prayer of two Raka’at behind Ibrahim’s Place (Muqam Ibrahim), a monument near the Ka’ba in the mosque. However, due to the density of pilgrims during the Hajj season, they simply performed prayers anywhere in the mosque. After the prayers, pilgrims also drank water from Zamzam well, which is available in the mosque tap. Read more about Quran Verses of Respecting Parents
Although traditionally tawaf worship is done on the ground floor, tawaf now can also be done on the first floor and the roof of the mosque in order to avoid density.
Tawaf followed by sa’i, walking or running seven times between Safa and Marwah hills, located near the Ka’ba, Previously this place is in the open, now this place is closed and entered into the area of the Grand Mosque, and can connect directly with the tunnel.
Jamaah are required to walk between these two hills, until the two green poles mark a small part as a sign of when they should run.
The line now has an “express path” for people with disabilities or elderly people. After Sa’i, male pilgrims shave their hair and women cut off some parts of hair, this is also as a complement to the Umra worship.
Rundown of Hajj
As mentioned earlier, the implementation of the pilgrimage is done from the 8th of Zulhijah to 12-13 Zulhijah. On that date, pilgrims began to implement their obedience. They wear ihram cloth to show that they intend to perform the Hajj.
This is where the ihram ritual begins; in Mina, worshipers wore ihram on the plains of Arafat during the Hajj season. After the morning prayer at 8 Zulhijah, the congregation went to Mina where they spent the time to perform the mid-afternoon prayers, evening, evening, and evening. The next morning after the morning prayers, they leave Mina to Arafat. Read more about Law of Yawning during Prayer in Islam
The second day, which is the 9th of Zulhijah is known as the Day of Arafat, and this date is called Hari Haji. In 9 Zulhijah before noon, the congregation reached Arafat, a flat and rocky region located 20 kilometers east of Mecca. Things done in Arafah include praying, remembering past sins, seeing the greatness of God, and listening to the advice of scholars Islam near Jabal al-Rahmah.
There Muhammad delivered his final sermon. These activities are held from noon to sunset, the worship is named ‘standing before God’ (wuquf), one of the most important rituals in Hajj.
At Namirah Mosque, worshipers perform afternoon and evening prayers at the same time in the afternoon. A pilgrim who does not observe in Arafat will not be accepted as a pilgrimage, even though he has paid a fine.
After that, the Haj pilgrims had to leave Arafat to Muzdalifah after an afternoon without the evening prayers at Arafat. Muzdalifah is the area between Arafat and Mina. When they got there, the worshipers performed the Maghrib and Isha prayers in unison (jama), spent the night praying and sleeping on the direct pedestals without the roof facing the sky, and gathering energy to carry out the jumrah pitch the next day.
After returning from Muzdalifah, worshipers again spent the night at Mina. Read more about Rules for Eating in Islam
Back in Mina, Hajj performs a symbolic ceremony pelting Satan with stone (Ramy al-Jamarat) by throwing seven stones only to one of the three pillars, known as Jamrat al-Aqabah from sunrise to sunset. Two other pillars (jamarah) are not applied to worship jumrah on that day.
The three pillars are represented as Satan. Jemaahah ride to Jumrah Bridge, as a place to throw jumrah.
After throwing the jumrah, animals are slaughtered as a way to commemorate the story of Ibrahim and Isma’il. Traditionally the congregation sacrifices their own animals, or organizes slaughter. Now some Hajj pilgrims buy enough sacrificial vouchers in Mecca before the Hajj season takes place, which removes an animal to be sacrificed by naming Allah on the tenth day of Zulhijah, without being attended by the pilgrims. Read more about How to Grow a Loving Heart in Islam
The modern process accelerates the packing of meat, which is then distributed to the poor throughout the world. At the same time as in Mecca, Muslims also made sacrifices, in three consecutive days known as Eid al-Adha.
After sacrificing an animal, the other most important Hajj ritual is to cut or consume head hair (known as Halak). All male pilgrims shave or shave their hair on the day of Iduladha and female worshipers cut off the hair part.
On the same day or the next day, pilgrims return to visit the Grand Mosque in Mecca for another tawaf, known as Tawaf al-Ifadah, a central part of the Hajj. It symbolizes the answer to the rush to God and shows love to Him, and is required as part of the Hajj. The 10th night was spent again in Mina.
Starting at noon until sunset at 11 Zulhijah (and the date after that), Hajj pilgrims again throwing jumrah, this time thrown to two of the three pillars in Mina. Worship is included into the pitch jumrah. In 12 Zulhijah rituals are the same as those done in 11 Zulhijah. Jamaah left Mina to Mecca before sunset on the 12th of Zulhijah. Read more about Ways to Visit Neighbour in Islam
If not able to leave Mina on the 12th, they are required to re-pass the jumrah before returning to Mecca. Finally, before leaving Mecca, the congregation performed a farewell tawaf called Tawaf al-Wadaa. ‘Wadaa’ means ‘farewell invitation’.
The Jama’ah surrounded the Ka’bah seven times against the needle of the jama, and if possible, it was wished to kiss and touch the Ka’ba
Do’s and Dont’s in Hajj
In doing the pilgrimage should not be done arbitrarily, of course there are things that are forbidden to do and also there are things that allowed to do, his name also Hajj must necessarily follow the rules and below some things that can be done and not may be done during the Hajj. [AdSense-C]
- Wearing fragrances, unless it is used in the body before the intention of ihram.
- Cut nails and shave or pull hair.
- Hunting wild game animals and can be eaten.
- Killing and molesting land game by any means, except dangerous animals.
- Marry, marry off, or marry a woman.
- Season or husband-wife relationship.
- Say dirty, berate, or quarrel. Read more about Benefits of Tawakkul to Allah
- The prohibition is intended specifically for men in between: Wearing plain clothes, including panties; Wear shoes that cover the heels; and Wear a head cover that is directly attached like a cap or hat.
- Implement what Allah Almighty requires of him.
- Keep away from what Allah Almighty prohibits in the form of rafats (saying bad, friendly with wife), fusuq (breaking religious orders), jiddal (arguments), and other misconduct.
- Avoid speech or deeds that disturb and hurt fellow Muslims.
- For those who are in ihram, may wear sandals, sunglasses, earphones, watches, casual belts, belts, and money.
- It is permissible to replace ihram clothes and wash them, as well as bathe and wash their heads. When bathing and washing are accidentally fallen hair, it is okay, as well as when she gets hurt.
That was the explanation about Hajj, from A to Z. We sincerely hope that this is will bring you much more information and giving a description about Hajj, so you can prepare it. See you in the next article.