15 Rules for Slavery in Islam – Islamic State
When Islam comes, Islam wants to abolish slavery and free them all. Islam also teaches us to do good in behaving even with slaves, because there is really no difference between slaves and free human beings. Below here is the 15 rules of slavery in Islam that suggest by our Prophet Muhammad PBUH.
1. Only prisoners of war can be slaves
By the time Islam came, Islam restricted of slavery, which was merely a prisoner of war that could be slaves. The following is stated in the Quranic verse.
“And who guard their modesty. Save from their wives or the (slaves) that their right hands possess, for then they are not blameworthy,” (Verse 23: 5-6)
2. The female slave only belongs to his master
Slave girls are allowed to be mated as a wife. However, the slave may only be mastered by his master only. Slaves owned by a father cannot be mated with his children or anyone else. Even if the slave has given birth to a child, his master must not sell it, but he must keep it or free it. Here Allah Almighty says in the Quran.
“And all married women (are forbidden unto you) save those (captives) whom your right hands possess. It is a decree of Allah for you. Lawful unto you are all beyond those mentioned so that ye seek them with your wealth in honest wedlock, not debauchery. And those of whom ye seek content (by marrying them), give unto them their portions as a duty. And there is no sin for you in what ye do by mutual agreement after the duty (hath been done). Lo! Allah is ever Knower, Wise.” (Verse 4:24)
3. Freeing the slaves
Islam strongly recommends to his people to free the slaves. This is usually done as a ransom to pay for sharia violations, such as accidental killing. Below here is the following hadith.
“Ibn ‘Umar, may Allah be pleased with him, reported: Allah’s Messenger He said: Whoso frees his part in a slave, then he still has the wealth that reaches the price of the slave, then the slave is appraised according to the proper price, then he pays to each other his associate their part so that the slave is free. If not, then he only liberates his share only.” (Sahih Muslim)
4. The reward of those who freeing the slaves
The one who frees the slaves, Allah Almighty will promise them salvation from hell as well as their good fortune to enter the heaven. Below is the hadith narrated by Imam Bukhari and Muslim.
“Whoever frees the Muslim slave will undoubtedly deliver his limbs for the limbs, so that the genitals with his cock.” (Bukhari and Muslim)
5. Injure the slave’s body is obliged to free him
Whoever has a slave, but they hurt their bodies. So they are required to release him. Prophet Muhammad PBUH said in a hadith which tells of a master who cut off his slave nose.
“Go away because now you are free, then the slave said:” O Messenger of Allah I am maula (slave) who “, He replied:” Maula Allah and His Apostle. “(Ahmad)
6. Rules in freeing slaves
A slave is owned by several people, then one of the owners frees his part, then the other owner must free all his part by force. The rules in freeing these slaves are commanded by the Prophet Muhammad PBUH. Below is listed a hadith narrated by Imam Bukhari.
From Ibn Umar Radhiyallahu ‘anhuma, from the Prophet Sallallahu’ alaihi wa Sallam said:
“Whoever frees his part from a slave, then he is obliged to liberate entirely if he has property only with a fair price, and given to allies of their part, then the liberated person is released.” (Bukhari)
7. Slaves are still in relatives
Whoever has a slave who is still a close relative (mahram) then obliged over the owner to free him with force. This rule is also said by the Prophet Muhammad PBUH. Here is the following hadith.
“Whoever has a slave who belongs to his relative even mahram then the slave is free.” (Abu Daud)
8. Do not give excessive burden to slaves
“Be a taqwa to Allah and notice the slaves that you have” (Shahihul Jami ‘and Al-Irwa’)
9. Slaves have the right to eat
Whoever has a slave, should feed them. Do not let the slave that you have is starved. Below here is the following hadith.
“Slaves have the right to eat/side dishes and staple foods, and should not be burdened with work that is beyond their means.” (Muslim, Ahmad, and Al-Bayhaqi)
10. Raises the degree of slaves
Islam elevates the slaves, Islam elevates the slave by making slaves as brothers to their masters as the Prophet Sallallahu ‘alaihi wa Sallam says.
“They (slaves) are your brothers and servants whom Allah Almighty has made under your dominion, whoever has a brother under his control, let him give his brother food as he eats, clothing as he wears. And do not burden them with their burdensome work. If you burden them with a hard job, you should help them.” (Bukhari)
11. Behave to the slaves
Islam not only elevates the degree of the slaves alone. But Islam also teaches how to behave to be given, as well as how to talk to them (the slaves), so they do not feel inferior. In the hadith below here, the Prophet Muhammad PBUH said.
“Let not one of you say: O my male slave, O my female slave, but say: O my male servant, O my female servant.” (Bukhari dan Muslim)
12. Standard of human glory
Islam can even change some of the destiny of a former slave match with his master’s position, such as being a warlord, a leader of a people, or any other jobs. In here Islam teaches us that the standard of human’s glory in the world and the Hereafter is their ability (slave) which is the source of glory. Allah Almighty also says in the Quran.
“O mankind! Lo! We have created you male and female, and have made you nations and tribes that ye may know one another. Lo! the noblest of you, in the sight of Allah, is the best in conduct. Lo! Allah is Knower, Aware.”(Verse 49:13)
13. The man married the female slave
In Islam, to close the gulf between a free and a slave, the Quran advocates a man who is unable to marry a free woman to marry a female slave. Allah Almighty says in the Quran.
“And whose is not able to afford to marry free, believing women, let them marry from the believing maids whom your right hands possess. Allah knoweth best (concerning) your faith. Ye (proceed) one from another; so wed them by permission of their folk, and give unto them their portions in kindness, they being honest, not debauched nor of loose conduct. And if when they are honorably married they commit lewdness they shall incur the half of the punishment (prescribed) for free women (in that case). This is for him among you who feareth to commit sin. But to have patience would be better for you. Allah is Forgiving, Merciful.” (Verse 4:25)
14. Prioritize A Muslim slave
If you want to marry a slave, choose a Muslim slave. Islam is more concerned with a free Muslim woman married to a male slave of the Muslim than to marry the free man who is an unbeliever even though he is fascinating. Below here, Allah Almighty also says in the Quran.
” Wed not idolatresses till they believe; for lo! a believing bondwoman is better than an idolatress though she please you; and give not your daughters in marriage to idolaters till they believe, for lo! a believing slave is better than an idolater though he please you. These invite unto the Fire and Allah inviteth unto the Garden, and unto forgiveness by His grace, and expoundeth His revelations to mankind that haply they may remember.”(Verse 2:221)
15. Make an agreement with the slaves
In this Quranic verse, it is explained that whoever has a slave should make an agreement with them (slaves). Pay some money that has been in agreement with the lawful property. This verse also explains that this agreement is one of the ways in Islam to abolish the slavery. Allah Almighty says in the Quran.
“And let those who cannot find a match keep chaste till Allah give them independence by His grace. And such of your seeking as seek a writing (of emancipation), write it for them if ye are aware of aught of good in them, and bestow upon them of the wealth of Allah which He hath bestowed upon you. Force not your slave-girls to whoredom that ye may seek enjoyment of the life of the world, if they would preserve their chastity. And if one force them, then (unto them), after their compulsion, lo! Allah will be Forgiving, Merciful.”
Hopefully the 15 rules for slavery in Islam could be add in our insight as Muslim. With these rules now we can know, how to behave the slave as well as recommended by The Messenger of Allah Almighty.
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