Ali ibn Abi Talib was known as the fourth caliph after Abu Bakr, the first caliph who has many lessons from his life, Umar ibn Khattab, and Uthman ibn Affan.
The reign of Ali ibn Abi Talib can be considered as an unstable government. This is because he inherited a rebellion that occurred at the end of Uthman ibn Affan’s leadership.
Little achievement was made by Ali ibn Abi Talib. He was more concerned with the problem of rebellion and internal divisions of Muslims. Until finally, he died being killed at the hands of the rebels.
What was the story of the Caliphate of Ali ibn Abi Talib at that time? Here is a little story of Ali ibn Abi Talib from the beginning until he passed away.
Ali ibn Abi Talib entered Islam and became a friend of the Prophet
Ali ibn Abi Talib was a cousin of the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) who was the son of the uncle of the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH), Abu Talib. His mother named Fatimah bint Asad. Both of his parents were descendants of the Banu Hashim who were a prominent tribe in the Quraysh tribe.
Ali ibn Abi Talib was one of the people who converted to Islam from the beginning. In fact, Ali became the first young man to convert to Islam before finally being overtaken by other young men.
Apart from being close to the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH), Ali converted to Islam because of his intelligence in thinking. Therefore, there is no doubt that Ali ibn Abi Talib was able to convert to Islam at such a young age.
When Ali began to grow up, he began to participate in various wars that must be fought by Muslims. Ali became one of the greatest warriors possessed by Muslims. Almost all the battles of the Muslims he fought for while the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) was still alive, except the Tabuk War.
During the Battle of Badr, he became a Muslim hero along with the uncle of the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH), Hamzah ibn Abdul Muttalib. During the Khandaq War, that also called the Battle of Trench, Ali confronted the Quraysh infidels and succeeded in killing one of the leaders of the Quraysh infidels, Amar ibn Abdi Wud.
While during the Khaibar War, Ali was rumored to be the only friend who was able to break through the Jewish stronghold, even though the story was still confusing. Only during the Tabuk War, Ali ibn Abi Talib stayed in Medina to replace the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) as the leader of Medina for a while.
When the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) passed away, Ali ibn Abi Talib had refused to leave the house and join the battle because he was so sad. In addition, he also took care of his wife, Fatimah Az-Zahra, who was very little about the death of his beloved father.
Until finally, Ali just wanted to come out after his beloved wife passed away due to illness continue to think about the death of the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH). At that time, Ali also took allegiance to Abu Bakr as the first caliph after the Prophet Muhammad.
Ali ibn Abi Talib Becomes Caliph
Ali ibn Abi Talib was appointed caliph replacing Uthman ibn Affan who at the time passed away at the hands of the rebels. Initially, Ali ibn Abi Talib refused to accept the reins of leadership as caliph replacing his senior, Uthman.
However, Zubair ibn Awwam and Talha ibn Ubaidilah continued to urge Ali to become the next caliph. As a result, Ali was willing to accept the position of caliph after three senior friends, Zubair ibn Awwam, Talha ibn Ubaidillah, and Sa’ad ibn Abi Waqas made him the fourth caliph.
After becoming caliph, Ali was immediately confronted with a variety of heavy tasks and demands. The most severe demand is that he was asked to investigate the case of the murder of Uthman ibn Affan and punish the perpetrators of the rebellion.
However, the chaotic situation of Muslims at that time made it difficult for Ali to find the perpetrators of the rebellion as well as the murder of Uthman ibn Affan. This at the same time made internal divisions within the Muslim community even greater after Zubair ibn Awwam and Talha ibn Ubaidillah removed their pledge of allegiance from Ali.
The two senior friends considered Ali too slow to deal with the current Muslim uprising problem. It also triggered the anger of the Prophet Muhammad’s wife, Aisha radhiallahu anha who has importance in Islam, also condemned Ali’s leadership and asked Ali to step down from the position of caliph.
These conditions triggered a civil war between the camp of Aisha and the camp of Ali ibn Abi Talib called the Jamal War. In the war, many Muslims died, including two senior friends of Zubair ibn Awwam and Talha ibn Ubaidillah. Ali also won the battle and rectified the misunderstanding with Aisha.
In addition to the battle against Aisha, Ali was also confronted with a battle against Uthman’s brother who both came from the Umayyads, Muawiyah.
Muawiyah initially refused to be removed from his position as Governor of Sham and opposed Ali, who was considered slow in dealing with the Uthman assassination group.
Muawiyyah also declared himself as a rival caliph even though he only served as Governor of Sham. Finally, there was a Shiffin War between Muawiyyah and Ali. Ali, who had a very straight personality in politics, was able to be put to good use by the Muawiyyah camp.
Ali lost diplomacy after Amr ibn Ash removed Ali from the position of caliph and appointed Muawiyyah as the new caliph. This incident made Muslims break into three groups, namely Sunni (which is a term for supporters of Muawiyyah), Shia (which is a term for supporters of Ali), and Khawarij (which opposes Ali and Muawiyyah).
Ali also must be preoccupied with not only the war against Muawiyyah, but also the war against the Khawarij. Ali ibn Abi Talib was killed after being killed by one of the Khawarij named Abdurrahman ibn Muljam. Muawiyyah and Amr ibn Ash were actually also targeted by the Khawarij. However, they both managed to escape.
Ali’s leadership period ended tragically and has not been able to resolve the conflict. The conflict continued until Ali’s grandchildren, Hasan and Hussein, passed away. After that, the Islamic kingdom began with the emergence of the Umayyad Sultanate.
1. As Muslims, we must have intelligent and scientific thinking so that we are always able to accept the teachings of Islam properly. Like Ali ibn Abi Talib who has intelligent thinking so that he can find the real truth of Islam.
2. As Muslims, we must become strong individuals both in physical matters and in faith. Like Ali ibn Abi Talib who has always been at the forefront in defending Muslims, both thoughtfully and physically.
3. As Muslims, we must carry out the trust given as best we can because the trust is our debt to God and the trustee. Like Ali ibn Abi Talib who, despite inheriting a very chaotic condition of Muslims, he continued to carry out the mandate as the best possible caliph.
That was a little story about the caliph Ali ibn Abi Talib. Hopefully this story can be a lesson for us all and further strengthen our faith in Allah SWT. So, we can become people who are always devoted. Aamiin ya rabbal ‘alamiin.