Caliph Uthman ibn Affan was the third caliph after Abu Bakr Ash-Shiddiq, the first caliph, and Umar ibn Khattab. He is known as one of the companions who first converted to Islam and entered the Assabiqunal Awwalun group.
In addition, Uthman ibn Affan was known as a very generous and highly respected companion, both the Prophet’s companions and the Quraysh infidels. Not only that, Uthman was also known as one of the caliphs who had various extraordinary achievements.
So what is the story of the Caliph Uthman ibn Affan? Following the story of his life during his tenure as caliph.
The Beginning of Uthman ibn Affan Embraced Islam
Uthman ibn Affan was born from a father named Affan ibn Abi Al-‘As and a mother named Arwa bint Kurayz who came from a distinguished and noble tribe among the Quraysh infidels at the time, namely the Banu Umayyah and the Banu Abdus Shams.
Since birth, Uthman had lived in a state of wealth and possessed high knowledge. He was one of 22 people in Mecca who knew how to write. Uthman’s father died at a young age and gave Uthman a huge inheritance. Uthman became a successful and wealthy merchant like his father.
One time, after trading, he heard that there were teachings brought by the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH). Uthman, who was curious at that time, asked his friend Abu Bakr Ash Shiddiq. At that time, Abu Bakr had converted to Islam and invited Uthman to embrace Islam.
After hearing Abu Bakr’s explanation, Uthman, who was intelligent and open-minded, decided to embrace Islam. Abu Bakr also drove him to meet the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH). Eventually, Uthman became the first Muslim and included in the Assabiqunal Awwalun group, including Khadijah, Prophet’s wife who has many values from her life, Abu Bakr, Bilal ibn Rabbah and values from his life, and others.
The news of Uthman who had embraced Islam reached his tribe, Banu Umayyah, who was then led by Abu Sufyan. Uthman’s entry into Islam angered all the Umayyads. Although he had already converted to Islam, Uthman was known to be respected and respected by the Quraysh infidels because of his friendliness and gentleness. As a result, no one dared to torture and even touch Uthman, as they tortured other Muslims.
In fact, the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) once sent Uthman ibn Affan to negotiate with the leaders of the Quraysh infidels when Muslims were experiencing an economic embargo on the part of the Quraysh infidels.
The sending of Uthman ibn Affan made the Quraysh infidels not dare to act arbitrarily. In fact, he was treated well because he was respected by the Quraysh infidels.
Uthman contributed a lot in terms of funds for the Islamic preaching struggle at that time. His enormous wealth helped smooth the struggle of the da’wah of Muslims. In fact, it is rumored that there is still land currently in Saudi Arabia which is a legacy from his wealth.
Uthman ibn Affan Elected as Caliph
Uthman ibn Affan was chosen as caliph after the death of Caliph Umar ibn Khattab who was killed by a Jew named Abu Lu’lu’ah. Before Uthman was elected, there were six candidates proposed to be the next caliph, namely Ali ibn Abi Talib, Uthman ibn Affan, Abdurrahman ibn Auf, Sa’d ibn Abi Waqas, Zubair ibn Awwam, and Talha ibn Ubaidillah.
However, Abdurrahman ibn Awf, Sa’d ibn Abi Waqas, Zubair ibn Awwam, and Talha ibn Ubaidillah withdrew from the nomination. As a result, only Uthman ibn Affan and Ali ibn Abi Talib were left. Representatives of the Muslims who were present also chose Uthman to continue the reins of Muslim leadership.
Uthman was chosen as caliph when he was 70 years old and was the oldest companion to be appointed as caliph. The election of Uthman to be a caliph was an interesting thing because Uthman had never before led an army at all. Unlike his predecessors, Abu Bakr and Umar, he contributed more in terms of funding than labor.
Achievements of Uthman ibn Affan During Appointed as Caliph
Although he had never led an army, Uthman was not without achievements while serving as the caliph. There were several achievements that were achieved by Uthman during his leadership. Following the achievements of Uthman ibn Affan as the third caliph:
1. Building the first Islamic marine military fleet
During Uthman’s reign, for the first time Muslims had a marine military fleet. The navy was spearheaded by Uthman and his brother who also came from the Umayyads named Muawiyah.
In fact, the newly formed marine military fleet had succeeded in defeating the naval superpower at that time, Byzantium, in a battle in 655 AD.
This marine military fleet was directly led by Muawiyah and manned by Monophysite Christians, Copts, Syrian Christian sailors, and Syrian Forces.
2. Military expansion is expanding
Uthman who was not from a military background changed the strategy of expanding Islamic territory into autonomy. Uthman gave freedom to each region to expand the Islamic territory. This strategy is different from Umar’s, which tends to be the direct decision of Umar.
As a result, the Islamic territory is increasingly broad with the conquest of areas that have not been touched during the reign of Umar. These regions include Sindh, Pakistan, North Africa, Spain, Turkmenistan, Afghanistan, and many more.
3. Increasing economic and social welfare
During Uthman’s reign, benefits were given to people assuming the office was increased to 25%. In addition, he who has a trader’s background strives to improve the trade sector.
As a result, community income from the trade and land management sector has increased. The economic and social welfare of the Islamic community at that time also increased. In fact, almost all Muslims live in prosperity.
4. Bookkeeping Al-Qur’an
One of the most memorable and lasting achievements to date is the bookkeeping of the Qur’an. Actually, the proposed bookkeeping Al-Qur’an, that you will obtain many benefits from memorizing it, has emerged since the reign of Abu Bakr Ash-Shiddiq. However, the execution of the Qur’an bookkeeping project only took place during the reign of Uthman.
In a way, Uthman’s reign was the time of the writing of the Qur’an to be a Manuscripts after the process of gathering verses carried out during the time of Abu Bakr Ash-Shiddiq and Umar ibn Khattab.
Because the Al-Qur’an Manuscripts that were recorded were completed during the time of the Uthman Caliph, the Al-Qur’an Manuscripts that we have been reading are called Uthman Manuscripts.
Uthman’s reign ended quite tragically. He was killed at the hands of a rebel named Al-Gafiqi. This revolt was reportedly started by a Jew who pretended to convert to Islam named Abdullah ibn Saba’.
The issue of widespread corruption, collusion and nepotism became issues that were blown to end Uthman’s office.
1. As Muslims, we must be willing to give everything in the struggle of Islamic da’wah, starting from time, energy, and wealth. Like Uthman who was willing to give away most of his wealth for the glory of Muslims.
2. As Muslims, we must be willing and able to carry out the mandate given to us. Like Uthman who had carried out the mandate as caliph as best he could for the realization of a prosperous Muslim community.
3. As Muslims, we must be able to be gentle, friendly, and non-destructive individuals. This will make friends and opponents reluctant to us. Thus, we are able to spread the teachings of Islam well and full of warmth.
That was a little story about the life of Caliph Uthman ibn Affan. May his story inspire us to strengthen our faith, so we could become strong believer, and our contribution to Islam. Aamiin ya rabbal ‘alamiin.