The crusades were a religious wars declared by the latin church in the medieval period. It takes series of wars within a period time of 200 years.
The motives of crusades is various including religious matter, political, and teritorial advantage. During the crusade there is a great lost from the both sides. The effects of crusades in Islam is so greatstrong, the war is over at the end of 13th century.
The war is originate from the competition of Islamic influence and Christian influence where the ruler of Islam Alp Arslan (the turkish seljuk) who led an invation knowing the Manzikart in the year of 464 H that make the Romans were pressed.
The incident later led for further hatred and revenge from Christian people toward Muslims. This hatred and revenge became its peak when the Seljuk Dinasty take Baitul Maqdis in the year of 471 H. Also read : blissful ways how to keep steadfast in islam
But in longer time the term of crusades became wider and has become a Christian term as a war in the name of their religion.
The Effects of Crusades in Islam
As mentioned before that the crusades great and strong, here we will discuss its effect in Islamic history and the spread of Islam nowadays,
1. The development of Islamic religion is hindered
As we know that one of the intention of crusades is obstruct the development of Islamic religion during the medieval times. Many scholars believed that Islam reached a golden age during this time. After the crusades certain borders that connected Eastern with Middles East and Asia.
2. islam suffer a great lost of cultural site
Without any doubt that the crusades was caused several damage in precious Islamic cultural site. The first muslims who had face to face with the crusaders is Turk in Anatolia even the emir of Seljuk win in some early clash but the big amount of crusader army was to much for them to handle.
And the crusaders begin to pillaged the countryside which left several damage. Also read : law kneeling for pleading in islam
The infamous destruction is the cultural site of Masjid Al-Aqsa in now so called Jerusalem. When the crusaders expand their invation on June 7th, 1099 they finally reached their goal to conquer Jerusalem where it almost had no potition to defend itself. It led Masjid Al-Aqsa into terrible bettlefield.
3. Islam suffer a great lost of its people including the scholars
A lot of people, army, and scholars of Islam became the victim of crusade. In Jerusalem itself it is believed that a massacre happened followed with almost 70.000 civilians both Muslim and Jews being killed in streets.
Some people who fleed into Masjid Al-Aqsa were alse killed in the holy masjid. When that accident happened it was the first time no adhan and prayer performed in the masjids and the street of Quds.
In the cities that conquered by the crusaders muslims mostly were ethnically cleansed such as in Jerusalem, Antioch, and Beirut. Also read : impacts of islamophobia
4. Jerusalem fall into the hands of western
Jerusalem is one of the sacred city among Muslim, but not only that it is also a sacred city for Jews and Christian.
But for Islam it was a great loss since we knew that this city is where the Isra and Mi’raj when Rasulullah was ascended to heaven as mentioned in the following Quran’s verse,
“Exalted is He who took His Servants by night from al-Masjid al-Haram (in Makka) to al-Masjid al-Aqsa (in Jerusalem), whose surroundings We have blessed, to show him of Our signs. Indeed, He is the Hearing, the Seeing.” (QS. Al-Isra : 1)
5. Political and security situation became vulnerable for middle east country
Before the crusaders came the muslim world is a total political mess in the 1000s, the Seljuk ruled ruled over the Anatolia where they established the Seljuk Sultanate of Rum which nowadays contain of Syria, Persia, and Iraq.
But they are not a united state where each region had their own governor that until nowadays regularly declared war with their neighboring governor (emir).
After the crusaders come the political mess became its peak, they are very vulnerable to infiltrate by the crusaders invasion since they were unlikely to help out other emir or region whaen they need it unless they are getting drag in or threatened. Until now we could see wars and strifes still happened in Syria and Iraq.
6. Culture assimilation
Not only in negative ways but there are also several positive way of the crusade. With the meeting of two different culture constantly had open the opportunity of cultural contact between East and West.
It was rather unique that the crusaders began to assimilated with the muslims culture slowly they began to interact and learn about Islam.
At that time Islam had a major development in every aspect both scientific, philosphical, culturan and technology inovation in contrary with the European. They were in Dark Ages of ignorance during this time, as mentioned by Usamah Ibn Munqidh:
“All those who were well-informed about the Franks saw them as beasts superior in courage and fighting zeal but in nothing else, just as animals are superior in strength and aggression.”
7. Islam invention and development slowly imitate by European
During the crusade what islam get mostly was despair, massacre, ruins, and they did not create any positive development in Islamic History.
The only thing remain until now is the creation of multi-religious society and some of the building castle like design that inspire Islamic architecture.
But for European or western indeed the crusade give a significant impact such as the entry of medicine, language, engineering, math, agriculture knowledge that brought by the crusaders. Also read : importance of battle of Badr
8. Bring up the hero in Islamic New History
During the crusades there are several leader which was very prominent and deserves a respect. Salah al-Din represent the qualities and characteristics as a Muslim. He began to determined himself to unite muslims in order to face the crusaders eventhough it took a few years.
He eventually bring a victory to Islam as he take back Jerusalem from the crusaders and bring the liberation of Jerusalem and failed several crusade war later. He was generous even to the enemy. His leadership bring a new era of the unity of Muslim that will be carried out by the Ayyubid Dinasty the state he founded before.
The crusades effects is painfull yet it brings something must be made a lesson by Muslims nowadays, as mentioned below,
- It later became the originator of Jihad in Islam in modern era
- It reminds muslims that it is not impossible will be happen again
- The crusades paving the way for west intervention to eastern and middle-east country till now
- Muslims must be more united again
- Islam began to spread across the western are and Asia with the open of trade market between East and European