Prophet Muhammad SAW is someone to be looked up in Islam, as Allah SWT has made him His faithful servants. But it doesn’t mean that the Prophet had an easy life. In fact, he had to face many difficulties doing his da’wa. Especially in the early days of Islam when the Quraisy made him had to leave Mecca.
Even until today, there are people who insult the Prophet and not believing him. Here are the severe punishment for insulting the Prophet according to Quran, Hadith, and the Islamic Schools:
1. To be Given Death Punishment
“The only punishment of those who wage war against Allah and His Messenger and strive to make mischief in the land is that they should be murdered, or crucified, or their hands and their feet should be cut off on opposite sides, or they should be imprisoned.
This shall be a disgrace for them in this world, and in the Hereafter they shall have a grievous chastisement. Except those who repent before you overpower them; so know that Allah is Forgiving, Merciful.” – Al Maida (5:53-54)
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2. To be Exiled from Society
“Those who annoy Allah and His Messenger – Allah has cursed them in this World and in the Hereafter, and has prepared for them a humiliating Punishment. Truly, if the Hypocrites, and those in whose hearts is a disease, and those who stir up sedition in the City, desist not, We shall certainly stir thee up against them:
Then will they not be able to stay in it as thy neighbours for any length of time: They shall have a curse on them: whenever they are found, they shall be seized and slain (without mercy).” – Al Ahzab (33:57-61)
3. The Exception of the Law
Those two source were only acted in the time of the Prophet’s life. There are specific situation written and the punishment for the insult was decided by Prophet Muhammad (SAW) himself.
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1. Strangled Till Die
Here are one source to verify such kind of punishment as narrated Ali ibn Abu Talib:
“A Jewess used to abuse the Prophet and disparage him. A man strangled her till she died. The Apostle of Allah declared that no recompense was payable for her blood.” – Abu Dawud
This punishment was also taken from the time when the Prophet is still alive. He ordered for Ka’b ibn al Ashraf to be executed. The reason behind it was because the person incited the Quraysh against the Prophet and urged them to seek revenge to the Muslim.
The other ordered to be executed is Abu Rafi’ before the Battle of Ahzab. Not only inciting the war, but they are also insulting the Prophet. It was also considered as blasphemy of the religion.
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Punishment for insulting that taken from Quran and Hadith was believed to be acted on the early days of Islam, especially the latter. For the more modern society, some of the biggest Islamic theologian also has their own punishment for those who insult the Prophet.
Hanafi views blasphemy as similar with apostasy. The law is pretty flexible because the repentance of the insulter is still acceptable.
- Death Punishment
If the blasphemer is a Muslim and he is a man, then he will be demanded to repent. But if he refuse to repent, then the punishment is death.
This applied for a Muslim woman who is insulting the Prophet. The punishment is to be imprisoned and got beaten up until she repents and have faith in Islam again.
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- Other Punishment
Insult to the Prophet often comes from a Non Muslims. If it happen, the punishment will be looked up in the book of tazir. It could be either death, caning, arrest, and more.
To a Maliki, insult to the Prophet is a kind of distinctive offense to Islam. It even worse than apostasy.
For a Muslim men, death is the only punishment given for insulting the Prophet. His repentance will never be accepted.
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- Arrested for Life
As for woman, it’s not suggested the death punishment. Instead, she will be arrested and get punished until she repents and put her faith back in Islam. If she refuse to do so, then she will be arrested for life until she dies.
- Punishment for Non Muslim
If a Non Muslim insults the Prophet, then surely be punished with death sentence or other severe punishment. But she can escape the punishment by converting their religion to Islam.
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Hanbali has similar view with Maliki about the insults to the Prophet. It is worse than apostasy and and offense to Islam.
No repentance will be accepted for insulting the Prophet. Whether it’s a man, woman, or a Non Muslim. there is only one punishment: death. This applied for every Hanbali in the world.
While Maliki and Hanbali view the blasphemy to the Prophet as an offense worse than apostasy, Shafi’i views it differently. They still accept the repentance of the blasphemers.
Repentance Before Death
Those who insult the Prophet will be given the opportunity to repent and return to Islam. As for Non Muslim, they should be convert to Islam in order to be exempted from punishment. However if they refuse to do so, the punishment is death.
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- Death for Muslim
All form of insult to Allah, Islam, the Prophet, or to any Imams in Islam should be given the death punishment. Repentance is hardy accepted.
- Convert or Killed
If the blasphemers happen to be a Non Muslim, they will be given the opportunity to apologize and convert. Unless they will be killed.
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According to Hadith Shahih
There are also punishment for the blasphemy towards the Prophet that comes from the Hadith narrator.
Bukhari and Muslim
According to the sunnah in Shahih al Bukhari no. 3:45:687 and no. 5:59:369, the basis punishment for those who insults the Prophet is death. Even though that person don’t do apostasy, they will still be given the death punishment for insulting the Prophet.
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In the modern society, there are still people who insults the Prophet. As the years passed and people change, every country has their own policy for those who insulting the religion and the Prophet. The punishment for insulting the Prophet is the possibility of losing all the legal rights.
It’s include their marriage to be dissolved, claims to property would be voided. As for those who repents, according to some Fiqh, the rights will be returned.