Based from Collins Dictionary calendar is a chart or device which displays the date and the day of the week and often the whole of a particular year divided up into months, weeks and days. Now, we know that there’re two most calendar which used in entire world. Solar calendar and Lunar calendar, Lunar calendar also we known as Islamic calendar there were many history on it.
Several years before Islam was entering in Arabic, which in the Jahiliyyah. The Arab doesn’t have any particular system for dating. Therefore, Arab used the important historical events to mark up and replace particular system for dating. There’re the historical events during Islam comes to Arab :
- In 1855 BCE, the construction of the Ka’ bah by Ibraaheem al-Khaleel and His son Ismaa’eel (peace be upon them both).
- In 59 BCE, the death of Ka’b ibn Lu’ayy, the seventh great-grandfather of the Messenger Muhammad (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him)
- In 571 CE, the year of the Elephant, which is the year of great Messenger Muhamad was born (blessings and peace of Allah Almighty and mercy be upon Him).
The absence of this particular system in dating lasted until finally the leadership of Chaliph Umr bin Khattab. The Islamic calendar was first introduced by the second Caliph, Umr bin Khattab. He consulted with his advisers in order to come to a decision regarding the various dating systems used at that time.
It was agreed that the most appropriate reference point for the Islamic calendar was the Hijrah, since it was an important turning point for the Muslim community. Basically, Islamic calendars are based on the shifting of the moon and contains approximately 30 days in each month because of the moon’s shape and movements. Allah Almighty says in the Holy Quran.
“It is He Who made the sun a shining light and the moon a derived light and determined for it phases – that you may know the number of years and account (of time). Allah has not created this except in truth. He details the signs for a people who know.” (Verses 10: 5)
Allah says in Quran :
“The number of months with Allah Almighty is twelve in accordance with Allah’s law since the day He created the heavens and the earth. Of these four are holy. This is straight reckoning. So do not exceed yourselves during them; but fight the idolaters to the end as they fight you in like manner, and remember Allah is with those Who preserve themselves from evil and do the right”. (Verse 9:36)
Every month in Hijri Calendar there’re many of history or even of Islamic moments, commands of good deeds and bad deeds also listed in here. Therefore below in these’re the information about twelve month of Hijri Calender and the importance of Islamic month (each month).
Muharram is the first month in Islamic calendar, the means of Muharram is “Forbidden”. Besides, Muharram is the ‘sacred month’, Allah Almighty made it more sacred by mentioning it in Quran. Allah says in Quran:
“Four of them (Zil-Qadah, Zil-ijjah, Muharram and Rajab) are sacred.” (Surah At-Tawbah: 36)
Thus verses mention that Muharram along with three months justifies its sanctity, hence it is worthy of equal reverence like other Holy Months if not more than them.
In the Muharam, our Holy Prophet Muhamad used to fast in this month and is reported to have said :
“The beast of fast besides the month of Ramadhan is the fasting of Allah’s month of Muharram.” (Muslim)
There’s a day in the tenth day of Muharram called Ashora Day. The Holy Day of Ashora is when the Prophet (SAW) migrated to Madina with His companions. There the Prophet (SAW) found that Jews kept a fast on the tenth day of Muharram to pay homage to day when Prophet Moses (AS) crossed the Red Sea along with his followers and the pursuing Pharaoh and his army drowned. Upon hearing this from the Jews, Prophet (SAW) said:
“We are more closely related to Musa than you “Hence He directed all the followers to fast on the day of Ashura.” (Abu Dawood)
There were other hadist that command us to fasting after or before Ashura to differentiate the Muslim fasting from Jew fasting. Prophet Muhamad (SAW) said :
“Observe the fast of Ashura and oppose the Jews. Fast a day before it or a day after. “(Baihaqi)
Safar is the month comes after Muharram. The word “Sifir” meaning zero or empty, as Arab used to empty their houses and would return back to fighting after the holy month of Muharram. Some people (when pre Islamic period) belive that Safar is not unlucky month, there would be brings mishaps and other disaster. But the all statement about Safar is unlucky month was false, because there’s totally without foundation (absurd).
Holy Prophet was quoted by Hazrat Jabir (R.A) to have said about this fallacy :
“I have heard the Prophet saying, the descending of illness and evil superstition befalling in the month of Safar is untrue” (Muslim)
While in Safar there’re even such as , the beloved Daughter of Rasulullah Fatima (R.A) got married with Hazrat Ali (R.A). Beside the wedding there’re two battles of Abwaa and Khaibar took place on 2A.H and 7 A.H in Safar respectively. Also Khubaib Ibn Adney and Zaid Ibn Dathina (R.A) were martyred in this month in the year 4 A.H. in Mecca.
3. Rabi’ul Awwal
The Rabi’ul Awwal at the same time with the of spring season. So, the meaning of it is spring. This month is a month who the Prophet Muhamad (SAW) was born. Besides this month was an event while our Prophet (SAW) migrated from Mecca to Madinah Munawwarah.
Therefore, there are two battles held in this month, battle of Buwaat and Saf’van took place in the year 2 A.H. And more even happen in this month; wife of our Prophet Muhamad (SAW) Zainab (R.A) passed away in the year 4 A.H. Abu Bakr (RA) was appoint as first Caliph. Then, you can check also about Akhlaq of Prophet Muhammad.
4. Rabi Al-Thani
The second month of spring in Islamic calendar, there are two importance even that Muslim should know it. First, the battle of Furu’ from Burhan took place in 3 A.H and Sariyyah was battle in which our Holy Prophet (SAW) did not take part in, instead he consigned one of his Companions as the colonel. Second, there were two were passed away Hadrat Khwaja Nizammudin and Hadrat Sheikh Abdul Qadir Jilanee at the age of 90.
Hazrat Anas bin Malik said that: “Oh Messenger of Allah, when we can give a charity based on our deceased. Then perform Haj on their behalf, do ever they accept the reward of these actions?, then Rasulullah SAW replied: “They do receive their rewards without doubt. Moreover, they become very happy, like they receive gifts.” Then in another time, Rasulullah SAW also said that : You who recite Surah Ikhlas for 11 times and conveys its rewards into departed souls. Then Allah SWT will give you a bunch of rewards to person equal to number of these souls.
5. Jamada Awwal
After the season of spring was ends, the summer comes. Jamada means dry and this is the first time of summer in Islamic calendar. In this month, the Holy Prophet (PBUH) married His first Wife, Hazrat Khatija (R.A) in it. The Grandfather of Rasulullah (PBUH), Abdul Muttalib, who took his great care, also died at this time of the year.
This month actually have a great history you must know. Jamada Awwal is recognized by the battle of Mut’ah which is become the greatest Muslim battle in that era. This battle also a sign the begin of relationship of Muslim and Roman became strained. Romans with Arab alliance used to provoke and aggravate Muslims. Moreover, their abuse became extreme when they killed Al-Haarith ibn ‘Umayr Al-‘Azdi. After that, Rasulullah SAW ask to increase protection since Al-Haarith ibn ‘Umayr Al-Azdi is the first messenger to be killed.
According to History, the Battle of Mu’tah was a miracle and supernatural event ever. Thus, the battle rendered the enemy with only principle of the Islamic military, neither on military gear nor troops. We, Muslim, believed that if we intend to sincerely fight for the Sake of Allah SWT until exhausted, victory will be ours, of course with Allah SWT’s permission.
6. Jamada al-Thani
The second of summer, Jamada al-Thani means cooler because the dry season is over. There’s mournful moments who the First of Caliph Abu Bakr was passed away at the age of 63 in 22nd Jamada al-Thani 13 H. Therefore at the same time and same of month, Umr bin Khattab has been appoint as second Caliph that replace Abu Bakr (R.A).
Besides, there was a big war in Islamic history called Yarmuk battle. The battle of Yarmuk was a battle between the army of Byzantine Empire and the Muslim Arab. In this battle many of Muslims dead (martyr) at least 3,000 of people.
Rajab is the seventh month and one of the sacred month of Muslim. The word “Rajaba” means to respect. The Holy Prophet Muhamad (SAW) has said :“Rajab is a great month of Allah (SWT), unmatched by any other month in the respect and significance (accorded to it); war with the infidels during this month is prohibited; Verily, Rajab is Allah’s month, Sha’ban my month and Ramadan the month of my Ummah; whosoever fasts a day in the month of Rajab will be granted the great reward of Ridwan (an angel in heaven); the wrath of Allah (SWT) shall be distanced and a door of the Hell shall be closed.”
Moreover in this month there’s moment the Messenger (SAW) of Allah went on the journey of M`iraj (Ascension to Heavens) and brought back the gift of Salah for Muslims with Himself. In Quran was write :“Praise be to God Who has enraptured His servant by the night from the sacred mosque (Mecca) to the farthest mosque (Jerussalem) “ (Verses 17 : 1)
Fasting in Rajab can give you the greater reward, there’s hadith of our Prophet (SAW) which says :
“Abu Bakr ibn Abi Shaybah narrated that Abdullah ibn Nameer narrated and ibn Nameer narrated from his father that Uthman ibn Hakeem al – Ansaari narrated, “I asked Sa’eed ibn Jubayr about the fast of Rajab what was his opnion on it. He said, Ibn Abbas narrated that the Prophet used to fast until we said he would never break fast and he used to break fast until we said he will never fast (again)'” (Muslim)
Therefore, seeking forgiveness (Istighfar) in this month is highly recommended, our Prophet (SAW) said :
“Rajab is a month of seeking forgiveness, so seek forgiveness from Allah (SWT); He is verily the Forgiver, the Merciful. It is highly recommended to repeat ‘Astaghfirullah wa as-aluhut tawbah'”.
Shaban one of the most revered months for Muslims and all Muslims over the world give value and have special affiliation with it. The word Shaban means branch, that Shaban branches off and leads to other good things. Shaban also acts as connection between the two blessed and sacred months of Rajab and Ramadhan. Below this, there’s hadith narrated from Hazrat Usama ibn Zayd (RA) that he asked Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) discuss about fasting in the month of Shaban.
“I have never seen you offer fast in a month as you do in Shaban “Then Prophet (SAW) replied :”It is a month people disregard that is between Rajab and Ramadan. In that month deeds are presented to the Lord of the Worlds, so I like my deeds to be presented while I am fasting. ” (Nasai)
Fasting in Shaban also giving benefits for all Muslims, it gives a chance to start preparing for the month of Ramadhan and many Muslims used to consistently recite the Holy Quran while in the Shaban.
Ramadan in the verse of Holy Quran :“The month of Ramadhan [is that] in which was revealed the Qur’an, a guidance for the people and clear proofs of guidance and criterion. So whoever sights [the new moon of] the month, let him fast it; and whoever is ill or on a journey – then an equal number of other days. Allah intends for you ease and does not intend for you hardship and [wants] for you to complete the period and to glorify Allah for that [to] which He has guided you; and perhaps you will be grateful.”
Ramadan is the most precious month in Islamic calendar, many miracles were happen in this month. First, the revealed of Holy Quran. Second, obligatory fasting whole in Ramadan that in the fourth Pillar of Islam; the gates of Heaven was opened and gates of Hell was closed . Then, the night of power (Laylat al – Qadr) which is better than a thousand months and many more.
Shawwal is the tenth month of Islamic calendar. Our Prophet (SAW) has directed us to do non obligatory six fasting of Shawwal as well besides those in Ramadan. The Messenger (SAW) is reported by Thawban (R.A) to have said.
“The fast of Ramadan is like observing ten months of fasting. Fasting six days of Shawwal is like observing two months of fasting.
Meanwhile there is beautiful hadith about Ramadhan, as : This together is like fasting throughout the year.” (Sahih Ibn Khuzaymah), Those hadith beautifully makes it clear to the Muslims about how the act of fasting in Shawwal in addition to that of Ramadan renders reward equal to that of entire year.
11. Zul – Qaddah
Taken from the word Qa’da which means to sit. Zul Qaddah is the third month of sacred month which fighting is forbidden. The importance of Zul Qaddah is the history night of 25th. It’s the history when the situated of Holy Kaba. At this night, the blessings of Allah Almighty is poured on people. Many people pray at this night and Allah Almighty is given reward who practice acts of worship. It is narrated that someone who fasting on this day is equal to seventy-year fasting. It also erases the sins of seventy years.
It is also narrated that worship at this night is equal to hundred of worship.Amir al Muminin Imam Ali ibn Abi Talib (A.S.) said:
“The first mercy descended from heaven towards Earth on 25th day of Dhul Qadah. One who fast on this day and perform prayers in the night shall be rewarded for hundred years of worship. And if a group of people gather at a place in remembrance of Allah the Almighty, their prayers will be answered before they disperse. On this day thousands & thousands of mercy descends (on earth) and 99% of mercy is bestowed upon those people (who keep themselves busy) in remembrance of Allah, fast on this day, and performs prayers in its night.”
We as a Muslims should pray on this month (Zul Qaddah) as much as we can obtain the blessings and mercy of Allah Almighty.
12. Zul – Hijjah
Finally the twelve month of Islamic calendaris also known as the month of Hajj (the pilgrimage). The fifth Pillar of Islam, Hajj is performed in sacred month. If you want to know about the Pillar of Islam check also in The Aims of Muslim Education. Our Prophet Muhamad (peace and blessings be upon Him) has said about the first ten days of Zul Hijjah:
“There are no days in which righteous deeds are more beloved to Allah than these ten days.” The people asked, “Not even Jihad for the sake of Allah?” He said, “Not even Jihad for the sake of Allah, except in the case of a man who went out to fight giving himself and his wealth up for the cause, and came back with nothing .”
Those’re the information start from how the Islamic calendar begins, the twelve month of Islamic calendar until the importance of Islamic month. The importance each in the month are commands for increase our good deeds as Muslims, and there’re four sacred month in Islamic calendar that Muslim has to know, there are Muharram, Rajab, Zul-Qaddah and Zul Hijjah. Hopefully all this information could be useful for Muslims in all over the world. The blessing and mercy through out to Allah Almighty and His Messenger (SAW).