12 Important Things in Zakat Al-Fitr and Its Proposal
After passing through the month of Ramadan, there is one other important thing that must be done before Eid Al-Fitr arrives, namely payin g zakat fitrah. Zakat fitrah is one type of zakat in Islam. Zakat Al-Fitr holds many important and main things in it. In order to understand it, here are 12 important things in zakat fitrah that must be known:
- Purify A Person who Fasts
From Abdullah bin Umar radhiallahu ‘anhu; he said,
أَنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ -صلى الله عليه وسلم- أَمَرَ بِإِخْرَاجِ زَكَاةِ الْفِطْرِ أَنْ تُؤَدَّى قَبْلَ خُرُوجِ النَّاسِ إِلَى الصَّلاَةِ
“The Prophet sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam ordered to perform zakat al-Fitr before the departure of the Muslims towards the field for the feast prayer. ”
(H.r. Muslim, no. 986)
From Ibn Abbas radhiallahu ‘anhu; he said,
فَرَضَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ -صلى الله عليه وسلم- زَكَاةَ الْفِطْرِ طُهْرَةً لِلصَّائِمِ مِنَ اللَّغْوِ …
“The Prophet sallallaahu‘ alaihi wa sallam required zakat al-Fitr, as a purifier of those who fast from acts which abort the reward of fasting…”
(H. Abu Daud, no. 1611; named hasan by Sheikh Al-Albani)
- Time of Payment for Zakat Fitrah
In the book Tausyih Ala Ibni Abil Qasim, Syaikh al-Nawawi al-Jawi explained the five times of payment of zakat al-Fitr;
ولزكاة الفطرة خمسة أوقات وقت جواز وهو من ابتداء رمضان, ولايجوز إخراجها قبله, ووقت وجوب وهو بإدراك جزء من رمضان وجزء من شوال ووقت ندب وهو من قبل صلاة العيد ووقت كراهة وهو بعدها ووقت حرمة وهو ما بعد يوم العيد وتكون قضاء
“The time for the implementation of zakat fitrah is divided into five. The first time is permissible which is calculated from the beginning of Ramadan. Before the beginning of Ramadhan, zakat cannot be issued. Both times are mandatory when someone experiences part of Ramadan and part of Shawwal.
Third time is recommended before the Eid prayer. Fourth, when makruh, pay zakat al-Fitr after Eid prayer. The fifth time is forbidden, the payment of zakat al-Fitr after the Eid-ul-Fitr festivities and its physical zakat is considered qadha.”
- Alms Recipient
From Ibn ‘Abbas radhiyallahu ‘anhuma,
فَرَضَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ زَكَاةَ الْفِطْرِ طُهْرَةً لِلصَّائِمِ مِنَ اللَّغْوِ وَالرَّفَثِ، وَطُعْمَةً لِلْمَسَاكِينِ، مَنْ أَدَّاهَا قَبْلَ الصَّلَاةِ، فَهِيَ زَكَاةٌ مَقْبُولَةٌ، وَمَنْ أَدَّاهَا بَعْدَ الصَّلَاةِ، فَهِيَ صَدَقَةٌ مِنَ الصَّدَقَاتِ
“The Prophet obliged zakat fitri to cleanse those who fasted from vain words and dirty words, and also to feed the poor. Whoever fulfills it before the prayer (feast), then the zakat is received (legal, pen.). Whoever fulfills it after prayer (feast), then only includes alms from ordinary alms.”
Ibnul Qayyim rahimahullah said,
“Among the instructions of the Prophet sallallaahu aih alaihi wa sallam is to specialize zakat fitri only for the poor. He never shared it with eight groups of zakat recipients, he never ordered it. Likewise the friends and people after them, no one did it.
Even one of our two opinions said that it is not permissible to issue zakat fitri except only for the poor. This opinion is stronger than the opinion which states that it is obligatory to divide zakat fitri to eight groups of zakat recipients.”
- People Who Issue Zakat
According to Imam Asy Syafi’i, a person begins to be liable to pay zakat if he meets the setting of the sun on the eve of Eid Fitri. If he finds that time, then it is obligatory for him to pay zakat fitri. This means that from the baby to the parents, they are obliged to give alms.
- Can’t Be Replaced With Money
Removing zakat with money means to disperse the orders of the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam.
عَنْ أَبِى سَعِيدٍ الْخُدْرِىِّ – رضى الله عنه – قَالَ كُنَّا نُخْرِجُ فِى عَهْدِ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ – صلى الله عليه وسلم – يَوْمَ الْفِطْرِ صَاعًا مِنْ طَعَامٍ. وَقَالَ أَبُو سَعِيدٍ وَكَانَ طَعَامَنَا الشَّعِيرُ وَالزَّبِيبُ وَالأَقِطُ وَالتَّمْرُ
From Abu Sa’id Al Khudri radhiyallahu ‘anhu, he said, “In the past, we issued zakat fitri at the time of the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam on Eid Fitri with one sho’ food.” Abu Sa’id said, “In the past, it was food; wheat, wine, cheese, and dates.”
(Narrated by Bukhari no. 1510)
- Measures of Zakat Fitrah
From Ibn Umar radhiyallahu ‘anhuma, he said,
فرض رسول الله – صلى الله عليه وسلم – زكاة الفطر صاعا من تمر, أو صاعا من شعير على العبد والحر, والذكر والأنثى, والصغير والكبير من المسلمين وأمر بها أن تؤدى قبل خروج الناس إلى الصلاة
“The Prophet sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam obliged zakat fitri with one sho’ date or one sho’ wheat for every free and slave Muslim, male and female, small and adult children. The zakat was ordered to be issued before people came out to perform the ʻied prayer.”
- Must Be For Those Who Are ‘Capable’
As said by the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam, “He who asks, while he has something that is sufficient, then he has multiplied the fire of hell (which will burn him) so that you should not ask).” He sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam replied, “He has something to believe for (himself and his family) for a day and night.”
(H.R. Abu Daud; judged valid by Sheikh Al-Albani)
Imam Ahmad was asked,
“Are poor people obliged to issue zakat fitri?”
He rahimahullah answered,
إِذَا كَانَ عِنْدَهُ قُوتُ يَوْمِهِ فَمَا فَضُلَ عَنْهُ لِيُؤَدِّي
“If he has enough food for one day, then the rest is paid for zakat.”
He was asked again, “If he does not have anything?” Imam Ahmad replied, “He is not obliged to pay any zakat.”
(Al-Masail Imam Ahmad, history of Abu Daud, 1: 124)
Therefore, if he is able to eat overnight even though he is poor, he is obliged to issue zakat fitrah.
- Fetus is not mandatory
In Al-fatawa Al-Hindiyah – a collection of the Hanafi schools of fatwa – stated,
وَلَا يُؤَدِّي عَنْ الْجَنِينِ ؛ لِأَنَّهُ لَا يَعْرِفُ حَيَاتَهُ هَكَذَا فِي السِّرَاجِ الْوَهَّاجِ
“It is not compulsory to fulfill zakat fitrah for the fetus because it cannot be confirmed. Such is the statement in Siraj Wahhaj’s book.
(Fatawa Hindiyah, 5/166)
- Will Be Submitted to the Poor
Fatwa from Shaykh Dr. Sholeh al-Fauzan about how many recipients of zakat fitrah,
قد فرض رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم صدقة الفطر صاعا من البر أو نحوه من الطعام فيجوز للمسلم أن يدفع الصاع للشخص الواحد ولعدة أشخاص المهم أن يكون من الدافع صاع كامل أما المدفوع له فلا مانع أن يشترك عدة أشخاص في صدقة شخص واحد
The Prophet sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam obliged zakat fitrah in the form of one sha’ bur (fine wheat) or other food ingredients, and it is permissible for the Muslims to submit one sha’ zakat fitrah to one person or several people. The important thing is that from the obligatory zakat, he submits 1 sha’ full while the recipient does not have a problem, there are some poor people who get zakat from one obligatory zakat.
- Provisions If Late
فإن أخرها حتى اليوم أثم وعليه القضاء ؛ لأنه حق مالي وجب عليه ، وتمكن من أدائه ، فلا يسقط عنه بفوات الوقت
If someone ends up paying zakah until the day’s deadline is out, then he is sinful and obligatory qadha because zakat fitrah is the right of property which is its obligation, and allows it to be fulfilled. Therefore, do not fall with the delay in time.
(Al-Majmu ‘Syarh al-Muhadzab, 6/126)
- Paid in the Current Place of Residence
Syahnun asked Ibnul Qasim (a student of Imam Malik), “What is Imam Malik’s opinion about Africans living in Egypt during holidays; where is the zakat fitri?” Ibnul Qasim replied, “Imam Malik said zakat Zakat al-Fitr is fulfilled where he is. If his family in Africa pays alms for him, the law is permissible and legal.”
(Al-Mudawwanah, 2: 367)
- Preferably to Close Relatives
The Prophet sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam said:
إِنَّ الصَّدَقَةَ عَلَى الْمِسْكِينِ صَدَقَةٌ ، وَعَلَى ذِي الرَّحِمِ اثْنَتَانِ صَدَقَةٌ وَصِلَةٌ
“Verily zakat to the poor is worth zakat (only). While zakat to relatives, the value is two: zakat and friendship.”
(HR. Nasai, Dariri, turmudzi, Ibn Majah and blessed with al-Albani)
Syaikh Ibn Uthaimin again explained, but with the conditions, in the giving of zakat this does not cause protection of his property obligations. Such a poor person is one of the people who must pay for it. In this condition, he may not fulfill the needs of the poor taken from his zakat. If he does this, it means that he has enriched his wealth with the assets of his zakat. Of course, this is not allowed and is not lawful.
Those are 12 important things in zakat fitrah that need to be known. Hopefully, this article adds insight into our faith.