Istinja in language means missed or safe. While in the term, istinja is removing dirt and stool after defecation. It can be done in three ways. First, wash and clean the dirt out of it until it is clean. Secondly, clean the dirt out with stone, then cleaned and washed with water. Third, clean the used place with stones, or special tissue or other abrasive items until clean. If anyone still uses a stone, then at least with three stones or a stone that has three ends to be clean. Islam is a good religion because small things like doing istinja have some laws that must be done by the Muslims.
They argue that the law of istinja is obligatory when there is a reason. And the reason is that there is something out of the body through two holes (anus or genitals). This opinion is supported by Al Malikiyah Asy-Syafi’iyah and Al Hanabilah. While the argument they use is the hadith of the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa Sallam the following:
“From Aisha Radhiyallahu ‘Anh said that the Messenger of Allah Shalallahu‘ Alaihi wa Sallam said; When you go to the toilet or bathroom, take three stones to clean. And that stone is enough for cleaning.” (HR Ahmad, Nasai Abu Daud Ad Daaruquthuni)
This hadith is the form of amr or the command and its consequence. They are the obligation of all Muslims.
“From Abdurrahman bin Yazid Radhiyallahu ‘Anh said that it had been said to Salman “Your prophets have taught you all things”. Salman said “True, He has forbidden us to face the Qibla when defecate or urinate. Also forbade istinja with his right hand and stone with less than three pieces of stone. And doing istinja with shit or bone.” (HR Muslim, Abu Daud and Tirmizy)
The doctrine or reason for the obligation to wash or clean the proper stools is a fact that the Messenger of Allah passed through two graves then he said, “The two men who are in the tomb are being tortured. One of the two of them is being tortured because of complaining of the sheep, while the other is being tortured for not purifying his urine. ” (HR Bukhari and Muslim).
There is another history of Salman Ra. who said: “The Messenger of Allah prohibited us from facing qibla while defecating or doing urination – or doing istinja with his right hand – or doing istinja less than three stones – or doing istinja; with animal dirt or bone. ” (HR Muslim)
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This opinion is supported by Al Hanafiyah and a partial history of Al Malikiyah. The point is that doing istinja by using the water is not obligatory but it is Sunnah. What is important is the excrement of doing istinja that can be eliminated even with stones or with a stroke.
The basis used by Al-Imam Abu Hanifah in this Sunnah of doing istinja is the following:
“Whoever doing istinja then his/her number is odd. Who did it then made a courtesy. However, if not then there is no objection. (HR Abu Daud).”
In addition, he argues that the stools which are existed due to the residue of doing istinja is included as a small stool. And according to his opinion, the small stool is forgiven.
In the book Sirajul Wahhab belongs to the sect of Al Hanafiyah there are 5 kinds of istinja, 4 compulsory and one of them is sunnah. The 4 are istinja from the menstrual period and if stool out of the hole and exceeds the size of the hole. While the law of sunnah is when the stool is out of the hole but the size does not exceed the large hole.
Commenting on this Ibnu Najim says that the four are not istinja but eliminate the hadats while the istinja is only the last one that is the stool that is big as the hole out of the stool, and the law is sunnah. So istinja by mazhab Al-Hanafiyah law is sunnah.
Five Conditions of Istinja
There are five conditions of istinja by wearing stones or other abusive/hard objects, namely:
- The stool is immovable from its exit;
- Not mixed with other objects even if the object is sacred and is not splashed by water;
- The stool does not extend to the boundary of the dirt;
- The stool to be cleaned is not dry;
- Stones or abusive/hard objects are not respected, such as food and not a stone from the mosque.
This is presented how to do istinja in Sunnah.
1. Prioritize the left foot when entering and right foot when exiting the bathroom/toilet
We need to do this because it is more polite in Islam law. Allah loves His servant who is polite and follow His command.
See also: Moderation in Islam
2. Pray for the morning first
Before doing istinja, we need to pray this in the morning: “Allahumma inni a’udzu bika minal-khubutsi wal-khaba’itsi (O Allah, indeed I seek refuge in You from all the Satans both men and women), while reading: Ghufranaka, alhamdulillahil-ladzi adzhaba ‘annil-adza wa’ afani (I hope for your forgiveness, praise for Allah who has taken me away from all that is not good and healthy)”. This prayer is needed to get rid of Satan that may disturb us.
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3. Not in the open place
When we do istinja, we need to make sure that the places are closed. It is because we have to hide our stools from others.
Prophet Muhammad said, “Whoever comes to the place to defecate, then he should take shelter (the place of closure).” (HR Abu Dawud)
See also: Best Way to Seek Forgiveness from Allah
4. It is better to be far from people
We need to be far from people and make sure they unable to hear when we are urinating or peeing, and not being smelled by people. It is to avoid disturbing them and keep their feeling.
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5. It is better to doing istinja with left hand and always wash before and after
Istinja with the right hand is makruh by the law. It is because the right hand is used for all activities and touch things or people so we need to make sure that our hands are clean.
From Abi Qatadah ra said that Rasulullah SAW said: “If you urinate then do not touch the genitals with the right hand. If defecate, do not stroke with his right hand and do not drink with a single breath.” (HR Muttafaq ‘alaihi).
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6. Do not read the writing that contains the name of Allah SWT
We must not read the writing that contains the name of Allah, names are glorious as the names of the angels. Or the name of the Prophet SAW. The dalil is what the Messenger of Allah (SAW) did when he entered the bathroom, he remove his ring. Because in the ring is engraved the word “Muhammad Rasulullah” which contain lafdzul Jalalah or the name of Allah SWT.
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Istibra is spending the rest of the dirt or urine until we are sure that all of them have thrown away. If we don’t do Istibra, it may affect our health.
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8. Don’t face to the Qibla
The dalil is the hadith of the Prophet SAW.
From Abu Hurairah ra said that the Messenger of Allah said, “When you come to a place of refuge, do not confront Qibla or back in.” (HR Bukhari and Muslim)
From Abu Ayyub radhiyallahu ‘anhu “Do not face the qibla while urinating or defecating but facing east or west” (HR Sab’ah)
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9. No talking while doing istinja
Talking when doing istinja is prohibited or restricted. Especially chat with fellow people who are also doing istinja. The prohibitions are the following:
From Jabir bin Abdillah ra said that the Messenger of Allah said, “When both of you who are doing istinja, should back one another and do not speak because Allah is ruthless of it.
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In addition to how to do istinja in Sunnah, there are some things that are makruh while doing istinja. Makruh is a legal status of an activity in the Islamic world. Activity with makruh legal status is prohibited but there are no consequences when doing so. Or in other words, makruh can be interpreted as an act that should not be done. Here is presented below makruh when doing istinja.
- Facing the Qibla or backing it;
- Distance from the wind direction;
- No conversations, except very forced to do so;
- See the view of the sky;
- Remove water in the shade or places commonly used by people.
- Bring verses or pieces of the holy verses of the Qur’an.
That’s all how to do istinja in Islam. Maybe some of us think this is a trivial problem but Allah wants us to follow all His commands for our goodness. There are some obligatory, Sunnah, and Makruh that we must pay attention while doing istinja as Muslims. Hope this article gives us benefits.