Fasting in Ramadhan is an obligation to all muslim which are afford to do it. It is already being written by Allah SWT on His commandment,”
يَٰٓأَيُّهَا ٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُوا۟ كُتِبَ عَلَيْكُمُ ٱلصِّيَامُ كَمَا كُتِبَ عَلَى ٱلَّذِينَ مِن قَبْلِكُمْ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَتَّقُونَ
“Dear devout people, it is required to you to have fasting as it is a mandatory from all those people before you so you will have godly.” (QS. Al-Baqarah 183).
The verse above is clearly mentioned that those who are able and devout are required to do fasting. Still, how is the condition if we are not fasting in purposely? Below are some punishments for those who are intentionally not doing fasting in Ramadhan:
- Eating and drinking purposely
Abu Hurairah radhiyallahu ‘anhu mentioned that Rasulullah SAW said,”
إِذَا نَسِىَ فَأَكَلَ وَشَرِبَ فَلْيُتِمَّ صَوْمَهُ ، فَإِنَّمَا أَطْعَمَهُ اللَّهُ وَسَقَاهُ
“If someone does eating and drinking in forgotten condition, he shall need completing his fasting because Allah SWT has provided him with the food and the drink.”
Means that when someone is unconsciously eating and drinking, he can still continue his fasting and it is not void. However, when someone does it with purposely, then he is required to qadha his fasting on the other days. Read more about Virtues of Laylatul Qadr Night
2. Throw up intentionally
Abu Hurairah, Nabi shallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam said, “
مَنْ ذَرَعَهُ قَىْءٌ وَهُوَ صَائِمٌ فَلَيْسَ عَلَيْهِ قَضَاءٌ وَإِنِ اسْتَقَاءَ فَلْيَقْضِ
“Those who are being pressure in the condition that he is fasting, he shall no need to qadha his fasting. Otherwise, when he did it intentionally, he requires replacing his fasting.”
3.Menstruation and Childbirth condition
Abu Sa’id Al Khudri, Nabi shallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam said,
أَلَيْسَ إِذَا حَاضَتْ لَمْ تُصَلِّ وَلَمْ تَصُمْ » . قُلْنَ بَلَى . قَالَ « فَذَلِكَ مِنْ نُقْصَانِ دِينِهَا »
“Does she shall not pray and fasting when she is menstruation condition?” The women answered,” Yes, it is true.” Rasulullah SAW said,” It is the weakness of the women religion.”
In the condition of menstruation and childbirth, a woman requires to qadha’ her fasting on the other days. It is based on Aisyah statement,” We have haidh previously and we were not commandment to qodho our worship aside our fasting.”
The blood of menstruation and childbirth are accidentally and Allah SWT is giving lightness for them to qadha their fasting. Read more about Virtues of Reciting Al-Qur’an in Ramadhan
4. Do ejaculation in purposely
Ejaculation in purposely with hands by scrubbing his genitals at the stomach or thigh to be kissed or touched will cause his fasting is void. Here, he requires to qadha his fasting without implementing kafaroh. [AdSense-B]
5. Jima’ at noon
Abu Hurairah radhiyallahu ‘anhu said,”
بَيْنَمَا نَحْنُ جُلُوسٌ عِنْدَ النَّبِىِّ – صلى الله عليه وسلم – إِذْ جَاءَهُ رَجُلٌ ، فَقَالَ يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ هَلَكْتُ . قَالَ « مَا لَكَ » . قَالَ وَقَعْتُ عَلَى امْرَأَتِى وَأَنَا صَائِمٌ . فَقَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ – صلى الله عليه وسلم – « هَلْ تَجِدُ رَقَبَةً تُعْتِقُهَا » . قَالَ لاَ . قَالَ « فَهَلْ تَسْتَطِيعُ أَنْ تَصُومَ شَهْرَيْنِ مُتَتَابِعَيْنِ » . قَالَ لاَ . فَقَالَ « فَهَلْ تَجِدُ إِطْعَامَ سِتِّينَ مِسْكِينًا » . قَالَ لاَ . قَالَ فَمَكَثَ النَّبِىُّ – صلى الله عليه وسلم – ، فَبَيْنَا نَحْنُ عَلَى ذَلِكَ أُتِىَ النَّبِىُّ – صلى الله عليه وسلم – بِعَرَقٍ فِيهَا تَمْرٌ – وَالْعَرَقُ الْمِكْتَلُ – قَالَ « أَيْنَ السَّائِلُ » . فَقَالَ أَنَا . قَالَ « خُذْهَا فَتَصَدَّقْ بِهِ » . فَقَالَ الرَّجُلُ أَعَلَى أَفْقَرَ مِنِّى يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ فَوَاللَّهِ مَا بَيْنَ لاَبَتَيْهَا – يُرِيدُ الْحَرَّتَيْنِ – أَهْلُ بَيْتٍ أَفْقَرُ مِنْ أَهْلِ بَيْتِى ، فَضَحِكَ النَّبِىُّ – صلى الله عليه وسلم – حَتَّى بَدَتْ أَنْيَابُهُ ثُمَّ قَالَ « أَطْعِمْهُ أَهْلَكَ »
“When we are sitting closer to our Prophet shallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam, there is a man come to him and asked,” Dear Rasulullah SAW, I am so unlucky.” Prophet shallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam said,” What happened to you?” The man answered,” I’ve intercourse with my wife while I am in fasting.” Rasulullah SAW asked,” Do you have a bondman to be freedom?”
The man answered,” No, I am not.” Prophet shallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam asked,” Are you able to do fasting as long as 2 months continuously?” The man answered,” No, I am not.” Rasulullah SAW asked,” Will you able to feed the poor as 60 heads?” He returned to reply,” No, I am not.” Rasulullah SAW fall silence. Suddenly, there is someone giving a gift of dates to Rasulullah SAW, and Prophet shallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam said,” Where is the man?” The man answered,” Yes, it is me here.”
Rasulullah SAW said,” Please accepted this dates, and give charity on it.” The man answered,” Do I need to give to the worst poor aside me, dear Rasulullah SAW? Dear God, I and my family is the worst poor family from the east to the west in Madinah.” Rasulullah SAW is laughing at loud until His canine tooth seen and said,” Please give this food to your family.”
Here are some kafaroh needs to be done when someone is doing jima’ intentionally:
- Give freedom of a muslim bondman in a health condition.
- If not able to do it, do fasting as long as 2 months in continuously.
- If not able to do it, do feeding the poor as 60 heads and each of it will get 1 meal.
Noted that the condition is valid for men only, while the women need to qadha their fasting.
6. Pregnant and Breastfeeding mother
شَهْرُ رَمَضَانَ الَّذِي أُنْزِلَ فِيهِ الْقُرْآَنُ هُدًى لِلنَّاسِ وَبَيِّنَاتٍ مِنَ الْهُدَى وَالْفُرْقَانِ فَمَنْ شَهِدَ مِنْكُمُ الشَّهْرَ فَلْيَصُمْهُ وَمَنْ كَانَ مَرِيضًا أَوْ
عَلَى سَفَرٍ فَعِدَّةٌ مِنْ أَيَّامٍ أُخَرَ يُرِيدُ اللَّهُ بِكُمُ الْيُسْرَ وَلَا يُرِيدُ بِكُمُ الْعُسْرَ وَلِتُكْمِلُوا الْعِدَّةَ وَلِتُكَبِّرُوا اللَّهَ عَلَى مَا هَدَاكُمْ وَلَعَلَّكُمْ تَشْكُرُونَ
“(The certain several days) is the Ramadhan month, a month whereas Al-Qur’an is being declared as human guidance with all its explanations and the differences (between right and the fool). Thus, those who are testify hilal, he shall does fasting at the month.
Those who are in sick condition or traveling (he did breakfasting), then (he required to do fasting) as many as the day he left on the other days.
Allah SWT willed simplicity for you and do not want difficulty for you too. You shall required of His counting and glamorize of Allah SWT for all His guidance so you are thankful.”(Al-Baqarah:185)
The prophet of Muhammad SAW, “
إِنَّ اللَّهَ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ وَضَعَ عَنِ الْمُسَافِرِ شَطْرَ الصَّلاَةِ وَعَنِ الْمُسَافِرِ وَالْحَامِلِ وَالْمُرْضِعِ الصَّوْمَ أَوِ الصِّيَامَ
“Indeed, Allah ‘azza wa jalla is giving lighten half prayer for traveler and their fasting, pregnant women and breastfeeding women.”
In conclusion, women do not fasting accidentally due to their condition such as pregnant and breastfeeding; they are permitted not to do fasting but require to qadha their fasting sometimes in the other days. Read more about How to Avoid Arrogance in Islam
They are not allowed to pay fidyah in advance because they are expected can replace it with fasting too. Fidyah is addressed to those who cannot afford to have fasting in continuously.
7. Severe sick
وَمَا جَعَلَ عَلَيْكُمْ فِي الدِّينِ مِنْ حَرَجٍ
“He was selected you and He will not make you into a religion which will make you fool.” (QS. Al-Hajj:78)
يُرِيدُ اللَّهُ بِكُمُ الْيُسْرَ وَلا يُرِيدُ بِكُمُ الْعُسْرَ
“Allah SWT willed simplicity for you and do not want difficulty for you too.” (Al-Baqarah :185)
Laws for those who are in sick condition are permitted to qadha their fasting. Still, consider of the type of the illness such as cancer, which is impossible to do fasting, and then it is allowed to them to pay fidyah.
8. Wayfarer or traveler
وَمَنْ كَانَ مَرِيضًا أَوْ عَلَى سَفَرٍ فَعِدَّةٌ مِنْ أَيَّامٍ أُخَرَ
“Those who are in sick condition or traveling (he did breakfasting), then (he required to do fasting) as many as the day he left on the other days.”(Al-Baqarah:185)
Jabir bin ‘Abdillah. Jabir said,”
كَانَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ – صلى الله عليه وسلم – فِى سَفَرٍ ، فَرَأَى زِحَامًا ، وَرَجُلاً قَدْ ظُلِّلَ عَلَيْهِ ، فَقَالَ « مَا هَذَا » . فَقَالُوا صَائِمٌ . فَقَالَ « لَيْسَ مِنَ الْبِرِّ الصَّوْمُ فِى السَّفَرِ
During Rasulullah SAW travelling and seeing a crown of people throng around and then there is someone is being covered, Prophet Rasulullah SAW asked,
” Who is he?”
the people answered,” he is the fasting man.”
Rasulullah SAW said,
” Do not you think it is better for someone to have fasting when he is in travelling?” (HR. Bukhari 146 and Muslim 1115).
9. Elderly parents
An aged parent is permitted not to do fasting but he required to pay fidyah. Ibnu Qudamah said,” Those who are in sick condition and cannot be healed anymore, he is allowed not to do fasting and can replace it by feeding the poor every day. It is caused of the condition is equal with the aged parent.”
10. Do not have aims at the beginning
Abu Bakar bin AbiSyaibah told to Ali bin Muhamad whereas both of them told to us Waki’ from Sufyan from Habib bin Abi Tsabit from Ibnu Al-Muthawwas from his father which is from Abu Huraira RA told that Rasulullah SAW said,”
« مَنْ أَفْطَرَ يَوْمًا مِنْ رَمَضَانَ مِنْ غَيْرِ رُخْصَةٍ لَمْ يُجْزِهِ صِيَامُ الدَّهْرِ »
“Those who are breakfasting (not fasting) a day in Ramadhan without rukhshah (lightness or good reason for not having fasting), it cannot be replaced it with a year fasting only.” (HR. Ibnu Majah)
11. Insane or lost sense
Crazy people or a lost sense person is not valid for his fasting. If he is not returned in a health condition, he is not required to do fasting anymore while in the vice verse, when the condition is getting better (he returned in a health condition), he is required to qadha his fasting. Read more about Virtue of Doing Taraweeh Prayer in 1st Ramadan Fasting
12. Something inside his body
When there is something inside of her body such as a medical tool to do treatment like endoscopy, it will make the person is void for her fasting. She required to qadha her fasting sometimes in the future when she is already in health condition. Read more about Importance of The Qur’an in Ramadan
13. Apostate or Godless
It is something that caused of someone is not adhering Islam anymore (such as) deniable the existence of Allah SWT as the only one. For example; go to the shaman when he is in fasting condition, so it makes his fasting is void and not required to do fasting.
Those are complete explanation of punisment for Not Fasting in Ramadhan. Hope this article will be useful.