The Purpose of Islamic Economy in Life
In living our life on earth, certainly human need a basic needs up to an any additional needs that must be fulfilled. A human inability to get fund or capital to meet their economic needs will impact on the human minimum to survive on their activities and produce various changes.
Since a long ago, economic problems had occured in human daily activities. Eventhough there were not in a complex economic levels, these simple matters like barter, farming, developt economic at sea already done by ancient society. Indeed these matters still implemented nowadays with more complex technology.
Islam was born in the middle of the ummah (people), to make sure whether those fulfillment already fit and can work well. Islamic economy not willing to cornering one of them.
Economy According to Islam Though
In the theory of Islam, economic problems could not be separated with others (theory). Islamic economy is part of human life sector that also arranged by Allah SWT. Generally, islamic economy regulation in Al-Qur’an tend to be basic principle not technical. While about technical problems Moslems should develop it better with their capacity of knowledge, along with the development of the path.
The purpose of islamic economy itself summarized into these matters as following :
1. Ensure of Human Needs
Islamic Economy aim is that human will be able to fulfilled their life needs. Allah Himself guarantee that He will continue to provide sustenance and abundance of favors to humans with an assumption that human will obey and seek endeavor to Allah SWT.
The foundation of Islamic economy is tauhid (monotheism) or obedience to Allah SWT. Those who have believed and obedient to Allah will base their economic activities according to ethique, balance, universal, and fairness in doing it. Indeed, they will not be careless and also ood their endeavor.
Therefore, implementation of Islamic economy is a guarantee that the human needs will always be fulfilled with sustenance and abundance of favors from Allah SWT as long as that economic properly executed.
2. Avoid Social Inequality
Social inequality happened if wealth and all the resources centered only in particular subject or group. Therefore, Islam owned a principle to spread and give sustenance not only for a person or specific group by using the rules of zakah, infaq, and shadaqah.
The rules of zakah is not only a matter of purifing wealth or doing good deeds but it also moving people (ummah) economic to those who are unable or hopeless because the lack of economic resources. Therefore an obligation to do zakah, infaq and shadaqah are neeeded to avoid a social inequality in our society.
3. Ethical and Dignified Economic Fulfillment
Islamic economy purposes is to avoid unethical and undignified economic fulfillment. An example of it is like stealing, corruption, or commit other frauds. Therefore, Islamic economy was based on value of morality and aqidah (creed) so that the human needs won’t be done recklessly and guaranteed quality according to human needs.
Islam also forbid trading of illicit goods, trading that has no openness, honesty, and so forth. Islamic economy exist so that human could give an honesty, the khoser of goods (halal), the quality of goods, the quality of production, distribution, and consumption in the name of morals and aqidah (creed).
4. Regulating Fairness and Balance
A Fairness and balance are the basic principle of Islam. Islam arrange so that human won’t do economic transaction in closed and untransparent way. To arrange it, the small example is Islam alway gave an order in the existence of witness, financial recording, and applying standart or balance sheet that already agreed on the economic transactions.
5. Be Spared of Usury
Usury (riba) is an adding stuff, one of them is on debt from borrower. Usury itself could drag human and feelt chocked when we have to pay it back. Even on some person that unable to pay it, usury is like an endless choke. Most of poor people borrow money is for fulfilling their daily needs, indeed it felt chocked is human gave an usury on them many times over. Therefore, Allah gave a threats and sanctions of hell to those human doing it (usury).
Economic According to The Scholars
Islamic economy which the purposes already explained above, reaping its own science and drag an attention from the shcolars. Among other there are some scholars that paying an attention and focussed on Islamic economy problems.
These are the explanations of Islamic economy based on the scholars:
1. Dawam Rahardjo
According to Prof. Dawam Rahardjo, Islamic economy divide into 3 parts. These are an Islamic economy that based on the theory or value of islam, an Islamic economy as the society systems, and the economy of Moslems which means run by Moslems. Things related to economic system means related with the way or method to increase the economic activities. According to Prof. Dawam Rahardjo, those 3 things must be integrated and synergize to be strong and big in the Islamic economy activities.
2. Hasanuz Zaman
Hasanuz Zaman has an understanding of islamic economy which as a knowledge, application, and rule of syariah. These are served to prevent the existence of unfairness when human fulfilling their resource needs. Moreover, through that matter also make human to commit their obligation for Allah SWT and their society.
3. Monzer Kahf
From Monzer Kahf poin of view, economic knowledge has a lot of interdisciplinary support knowledge. Study of Islamic economic according to him could not standing alone without mastering other knowledges. According to him, islamic economy knowledge also depend on others (knowledges or sciences) such as mathematic, fiqh, aqidah, morality, statistics, graph, and etc.
4. M. M. Matewally
Islamic economy according to M.M. Matewally is a knowledge that used for learn Moslems in terms of fulfilling their needs and economic activities or optimalized the resources. Indeed it follow what already mentioned in Al-Qur’an and Sunnah as the cornerstone.
Basically what the scholars said about is contain of a principle that islamic economy aims that human will doing their life based on the purpose of human creation, the process of human creation, the nature of human creation, the concept of human in Islam, and humanity based on Islam as the function of religion, the world according to Islam, success according to Islam, success in the world and afterlife according to Islam, and way of success according to Islam in this world with a good and quality ways.
Therefore the purpose of islamic economy is to guaratee that matters with the same cornerstone, which is contain of pillars of Islam, Islamic law, faith function to Allah SWT, source of Shariah Islam, and pillars of faith. Essentially all the rules of Islam will give back to human as a benefits not only a formalities or normatif aspect.
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