Fasting in Islam is divided into four types, obligatory fasting, Sunna fasting, Makruh fasting, and forbidden (Haram) fasting. The four types of fasting are listed below. Below here is the various fasting that founds in Islam.
- Ramadan fasting
Ramadan fasting is the obligatory fasting that must be run by Muslims in the whole of the month of Ramadan. Ramadan fasting has also been written in the fourth pillar of faith where Allah Almighty has commanded us. Below is the word of Allah Almighty in Quran. See also How to Make Ramadhan Fasting Easier
“The month of Ramadan in which was revealed the Qur’an, a guidance for mankind, and clear proofs of the guidance, and the Criterion (of right and wrong). And whosoever of you is present, let him fast the month, and whosoever of you is sick or on a journey, (let him fast the same) number of other days. Allah desireth for you ease; He desireth not a hardship for you; and (He desireth) that ye should complete the period, and that ye should magnify Allah for having guided you, and that peradventure ye may be thankful.” (Verse 2:185)
2. Kafarat Fasting
In addition to fasting Ramadhan other obligatory fasting is Kafarat where this fasting is a fasting penance for a Muslim who violates the law of Allah SWT.
The offenses that are usually done are; intercourse at noon in the month of Ramadan, killing an unintentional Muslim, a husband performing a Zhihar, swearing but deliberately breaking his oath and a person who is ihram killing the hunted animal both of halal or haram. Below here Allah Almighty says in the Quran.
“Allah will not take you to task for that which is unintentional in your oaths, but He will take you to task for the oaths which ye swear in earnest. The expiration thereof is the feeding of ten of the needy with the average of that wherewith ye feed your own folk, or the clothing of them, or the liberation of a slave, and for him who findeth not (the wherewithal to do so) then a three days’ fast. This is the expiration of your oaths when ye have sworn, and keep your oaths. Thus Allah expoundeth unto you His revelations in order that ye may give thanks.” (Verse 5:89)
3. Nazar Fasting
Nazar’s fasting is a fasting promise that a Muslim must perform. If a Muslim pledge fasting for 3 consecutive days after he has recovered from his illness, it is obligatory for a Muslim who has promised to perform fasting according to it word Nazar (promise) which he uttered. Below here is the word of Allah Almighty in Quran.
“Whatever alms ye spend or vow ye vow, lo! Allah knoweth it. Wrong-doers have no helpers.” (Verse 2:270)
4. Qada Fasting
Qada is a fasting substitute where this fasting is performed outside the month of Ramadan as a replacement for the fasting Ramadhan. Usually, this is a lot done by women, where menstruation in Ramdhan is not permitted to fast, and they can replace it on another day outside of Ramadan. Below here in the Quran Allah has explained. See also Tips Ramadhan Fasting Pregnant Women
“(Fast) a certain number of days; and (for) him who is sick among you, or on a journey, (the same) number of other days; and for those who can afford it there is a ransom: the feeding of a man in need – but whoso doeth good of his own accord, it is better for him: and that ye fast is better for you if ye did but know”.
5. Monday Thursday Fasting
Monday Fasting Thursday is a practice of fasting Sunna often done by the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH). There are several privileges in fasting Monday and Thursday one of them is opened the door of heaven called “Ar Rayan”. This door will only be entered by people who often fast on the Day of Judgment. Below is a hadith that states of this.
“(Reward) Praise is lifted on Monday and Thursday, then I like it when my deeds are lifted I’m in fasting.” (HR At-Tirmidhi and Ibn Majah)
6. Prophet Dawood AS Fasting
Fasting of Dawood is the practice of fasting Sunah the most favored of Allah Almighty, the fasting of Dawood this fasting of one day, the next day is not fasting, and tomorrow fasting back so on and on. The virtue of Dawood’s fast is in addition to healing the body, Allah Almighty will enter that person to heaven on the Day of Judgment. Below here is the hadith. See also Virtues of Feeding the Fasting Person In Islam
“The best prayer in the sight of Allah is the prayer of Prophet Dawood ‘alaihi salam. And the best of fasting in the sight of Allah is the fast of Dawood. The Prophet Dawood slept in the middle of the night and he prayed in his third night and slept again in one-sixth. The fasting of Dawood is fasting a day and not fasting the next day. “(Narrated by Bukhari).
7. Fasting on the day of Arafat
Fasting Arafat is one of the most highly recommended Sunna fasts for Muslims who are not on a pilgrimage. This fasting was held on the 9th of Dhu al-Hijjah. Some of the privileges of this Arafah fasting is the abolition of sin a year ago and a year to come. It is also declared for anyone who does it will be forgiven for their sinful two years in a row. Below here is the hadith.
“Fasting the day of Arafat, I really hope in Allah, He abolished the sin of a year earlier and one year after.” (Tirmidhi and Ibn Majah)
8. Fasting Sunnah of Tasu’a
Fasting Tasu’a is the fasting of the Sunnah performed on the 9th of Muharram. The history of fasting is done Prophet Muhammad SAW because the Jews glorified that day and also fasted on that day. Rasulullah SAW also said fasting Tasu’a is the fasting Sunnah that may be done by Muslims. Below here is the hadith.
“When the Prophet Sallallahu ‘alaihi Wasallam fasted on the day of Ashura and ordered people to fast on him, they said, “O Messenger of Allah, he is one day raised by Jews and Christians.” So the Prophet Sallallahu’ alaihi Wa Sallam said, “If coming next year, Insha’Allah we fast also on a ninth day. “Ibn Abbas said,” So not to come the next year, the Prophet (s) died.”(Muslim and Abu Dawud)
9. Fasting Ashura
Asyura fasting is the fast of Sunna which is also done in the 10th of Muharram month. Fasting Ashura is a special fast and very preferred by Rasulullah SAW. Any Muslim who works on this fast will be removed all his sins a year before by Allah SWT. Below is a hadith that states this.
“From Ibn’Abbas Radhi Allahu anhu he said, I never saw the Prophet Sallallahu ‘alaihi wa Sallam pay attention to the fasting of one-day priority over others besides today, Ashura and the month of Ramadan.”(Bukhari)
10. Fasting Shawwal
Fasting Shawwal is a fasting Sunah performed in the month of Shawwal for 6 days. Starting from the 2nd to the 7th day or can be done on another day during the month of Shawwal. The virtue of this Shawwal fast has many rewards. For any Muslim who performing this, this fast is the same as a whole year of fasting. Below here are the Muslim hadith narrations, Abu Dawud, Tirmidhi and Ibn Majah.
“Whoever fasts Ramadan followed by fasting 6 (six) days of the month of Shawwal, then (reward) as fasting a whole year.”
11. Fasting Sha’ban
Fasting Sunna is done in the month of Sha’ban. According to the scholars, fasting is done to prepare for the fasting of Ramadan. Some of the virtues of this Sha’ban fast are able to complete the obligatory fast in the month of Ramada. In the month of Sha’ban, many various practices are raised by Allah SWT. Below here is the hadith.
“The month of Sha’ban is the month in which man begins to neglect that is between Rajab and Ramadan. The moon is the month of the raising of various deeds to Allah, the Rabb of the Worlds. Therefore, I am very happy to fast when my deeds are raised. “(Narrated by An Nasa’i, Shaykh Al Albani)
12. Fasting 3 days in the mid-month
Ayyamul Bidh or fasting three days every month. Fasting Sunna is done routinely every month for three days in a row. Usually, this fasting is done on 13,14,15 Hijiriyah. This fasting Sunna is also one of the testaments of the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) to Muslims. Below here is the hadith.
“My beloved (ie, the Prophet Sallallahu ‘alaihi wa Sallam) instructed me three counsel that I did not leave until I died; first, fasting three days each month, second doing Dhuha prayer, and the last one doing Witr prayer before going to sleep. “(Narrated by Bukhari)
13. Fasting in the haraam months
The haraam month or holy month is the month forbidden to kill in that month and the prohibition to perform any other unlawful deeds. In these months Allah Almighty commands us to multiply the fasting of the Sunna. One of them is the fasting of Sunah which is done in the month of haraam is the fast of Rajab.
There is no determination how long to perform this Rajab fasting. Below here Allah says in the Quran.See also Importance of Marriage in Rajab Month
“Lo! the number of the months with Allah is twelve months by Allah’s ordinance in the day that He created the heavens and the earth. Four of them are sacred: that is the right religion. So wrong not yourselves in them. And wage war on all of the idolaters as they are waging war on all of you. And know that Allah is with those who keep their duty (unto Him).” (Verse 9:36)
14. Fasting for unmarried youth
Prophet Muhammad SAW once said if anyone who has not found his soul mate, then fast. By Sunna fasting, it can fortify ourselves from bad deeds that trigger the passions that enter within. Below here in a hadith the Messenger of Allah Almighty said.
“O youth, whoever of you is able to marry, then marry, because marriage is more able to withstand the view and more nourish the genitals, and whoever is incapable, then he should fast because fasting can suppress the lust (as a shield).” (HR. Bukhari)
15. Fasting on Eid al-Fitr and Eid al-Adha
Fasting on the two days of the feast, both Eid al-Fitr and Eid al-Adha are haram. Why? On those two days are the times forbidden Muslims fast. Below here is the hadith.
Abu Hurairah RA, that the Messenger of Allah sent Abdullah bin Hudzaifah around the city of Mina to say, “Do not fast today because it is a day of eating and drinking and remembrance of Allah.” (HR Ahmad)
16. Fasting on Tariq day
Tariq Day is the day that falls on 11th, 12th, and 13th of Dhu al-Hijjah. Where these three days is a forbidden time for Muslims to fast. The following is explained in one of the hadiths.
“The days of Tariq are the days of eating, drinking and remembering Allah Almighty.” (Muslim)
17. Sunnah fasting of a wife’s done without husband’s permission
A woman who already has a husband, if he wants to fast the Sunna then she should ask permission from her husband. If the husband, does not allow his wife to fast, then the wife must obey. If the wife keeps running the Sunnah fast the law is haram. Why should the fasting of the Sunna be permitted by the husband? To fulfill a husband’s right is an obligation rather than a Sunnah fasting. Below the following here is a hadith that explains this.
“It is not lawful for a woman to fast while her husband is (not traveling) except with the permission of her husband.” (Narrated by Bukhari and Muslim)
18. Fasting a woman of menstruation or postpartum circumstances
Women who are menstruating are forbidden for her to perform prayer and fast. The reason is very clear: holiness. Women in menstrual or postpartum circumstances are not in a holy state. Someone who is menstruating or postpartum release up to 35 milliliters of blood, where this can make a woman sick and weak. These are two powerful reasons why menstruation or postpartum women should not fast. As in the hadith narrated by Abu Said Al-Hudri below.
“… Is it not if (a woman’s) menstruation she is not praying and not fasting?”
(Narrated by Bukhari and Muslim).
19. Wishal Fasting
Wishal fasting is a continuous fasting without breaking (eating) at night. Of course, anyone who performs this Wishal fasting is forbidden. But some opinions of scholars there are declaring this fasting is haram but some of them said it is Makruh. It is feared that a Muslim does not eat or break the night, it will interfere with activities both in worship and work. Below here is the following hadith.
“From Abu Sa’id Radhi Allahu ‘anhu, he heard the Prophet Sallallahu’ alaihi wa Sallam said, “Do not do Wishal. If one of you wishes to do a Wishal, then do it until dawn (before the Shubuh). “The Companions said,” O Messenger of Allah, indeed you yourself do a Wishal. “Rasulullah Sallallahu ‘alaihi wa Sallam-said,” I’m not like you. At night, I was fed and given a drink. “(Narrated by Bukhari).
20. Fasting on Friday
According to some of the fasting scholars conducted on Friday, the law is Makruh. Because Friday is considered a Muslim’s holy day. Below here is the hadith on the clarity of fasting on Friday. See also Prohibition of Fasting on Friday
“Do not fast on Friday but fast before or after”, (Bukhari).
Hopefully, the types of fasting in Islam can add our knowledge and help us to more understand the law of each type of fasting in Islam. We as Muslims must do the right fasting like our Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) orders us.