Udhiyah is a livestock animal that is slaughtered on Eid al-Adha and Tashreeq day in order to get closer to Allah because of the coming of those days (see Al Wajiz, 405 and Sahih Fiqh Sunnah II/366). This slaughter is one of the forms of gratitude towards all graces that are given by Allah SWT.
In sacrifice, there are some rules that must be followed so that the sacrifice that is done is valid. To be easier to understand it, the following are 7 rules of sacrifice in Islam that must be obeyed and its verses:
1. People who sacrifice
People who sacrifice must fulfill some rules so that the sacrifice is accepted. There are also some conditions for people who sacrifice which are as follows:
- Islam, besides Muslims, it is not required for him to sacrifice.
- Baligh and rational, then people who have not been baligh and are not/have not been rational are not burdened to sacrifice.
- Capable, it means that people who will sacrifice have materials as much as the price of the sacrificial animal outside the living for himself and people who he must give a living during Eid al-Adha and Tashreeq days. (See Fiqh Muyassar page 192)
2. The implementation time
The sacrifice implementation time must be done according to the provision. Sacrifice must be slaughtered after Eid al-Adha prayer until the last day of Tashreeq. In the narration of Bukhari and Muslim, the Prophet said:
“Whoever slaughters before the prayer, he should slaughter once again instead, and whoever has not slaughtered until we finish the prayer then slaughter with bismillah.”
The sacrificial animal is not allowed to be slaughtered before Eid al-Adha prayer or after the Tashreeq day ends. This was mentioned by the Prophet in a narration,
“Indeed, the first work that we must start on our day is prayer, then we go home then slaughter the sacrifice. Whoever does it, then he has done our example correctly, and whoever slaughters the sacrifice before the prayer, then he only gives the regular meat to the family; not related to the worship of sacrificial slaughter at all.” (Hadith Muslim)
3. The sacrificed animals
The sacrificed animals should be livestock such as camels, goats, cows, sheep, and something like that. Allah said, “And for every people, We give a guidance of sacrifice so that you remember Allah for the sustenance that is bestowed to them in the form of livestock (bahiimatul an’aam).” (QS. Al-Hajj: 34)
Shaykh Ibn ‘Utsaimin said,
“Even if there is someone who sacrifices with another kind of animal that is more expensive than that kind of livestock, then the sacrifice is invalid. If he prefers to sacrifice a horse for 10,000 riyals, meanwhile a goat costs only 300 riyals, then the sacrifice (with a horse) is invalid…” (Syarhul Mumti’, III/409)
4. The amount of the sacrificial animals
Most of people currently determine one sacrificial animal for one person, in fact, such this thought is wrong. The Prophet once exemplified slaughtering a goat for himself, his family, even his people who have not sacrificed.
Before slaughtering his sacrifice, he said:
“O Allah, this -sacrifice- is from me and my people who do not sacrifice.” (Hadith Abu Daud 2810 and Al Hakim 4/229 and validated by Shaykh Al Albani in Al Irwa’ 4/349)
Seeing this hadith, Shaykh Ali bin Hasan Al Halaby said: “The Muslims who are not able to sacrifice get the reward as people sacrifice from the people of the Prophet shallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam.”
A husband in the Prophet era also did the sacrifice for himself and his family.
Abu Ayyub radhiyallahu ‘anhu who said,
“In the Prophet shallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam era, someone (husband) slaughtered a goat as a sacrifice for himself and his family.” (Hadith Tirmidzi and he considered it sahih, see Minhaajul Muslim, 264 and 266)
5. Collective sacrifice
To be able to sacrifice, it is allowed to collect the cost in groups. Especially for a goat, the financing can only be from one person. Meanwhile, for a camel, it is allowed to be done by 10 people and 7 people for a cow.
From Ibn Abbas radhiyallahu ‘anhu, he said,
“In the past, we once did safar together with the Prophet shallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam then Eid al-Adha came, then we united in ten people to sacrifice a camel. Meanwhile, for a cow, we united as much as seven people.” (Sahih Sunan Ibn Majah 2536, Al Wajiz, page 406)
6. The condition of the sacrificial animals
The sacrificial animal that is slaughtered should be old enough and free from defects. Jabir narrated that the Prophet shallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam said,
“Do not slaughter (sacrifice) except musinnah. Unless it is difficult for you, then you can slaughter the jadza’ah goat.” (Muttafaq ‘alaih)
“There are four defects… and he signaled with his hands.” (Hadith Ahmad 4/300 & Abu Daud 2802, stated Hasan-Sahih by Turmudzi)
7. How to slaughter
The slaughter can be done by people who sacrifice or is represented. However, it must be started with the intention first. Intend that the sacrifice that we do is because of Allah SWT. Then mention the name of Allah before starting the slaughter. From Anas bin Malik, he said:
“That the Prophet saw slaughtered two kibas that are good and horned. He said basmallah and takbeer and put his feet beside its neck.” (Hadith Bukhari, Muslim and others)
Besides it, the knife that is used for the slaughter must also be sharp so that the animal does not feel pain for too long.
Ibn Umar had said that the Prophet saw ordered that that knife was sharpened and did not shown to the animals, then he said,
“If one of you slaughters then he should hasten its death.” (Hadith Ahmad and Ibn Majah)
The slaughter must also be done quickly and right in the throat of the sacrificial animal.
Abu Hurairah had said that the Prophet saw once sent Budail bin Warqa Al-Khuza’i by riding a greenish camel to shout in the ways of Muna (by saying): “Know that the slaughter is exactly in its throat/neck.”. (Hadith Daruquthni)
Those are the 7 important rules in sacrificing that must be followed. Without following those rules, then the sacrifice can be considered invalid or lack of good. That is all for this brief article. Hopefully it is useful and increases our knowledge of religion. Aamiin.