There are a lot of virtues of getting married in Islam and mahr is important in marriage since it is a mandatory payment in the form of money or other possessions paid by the groom, to the bride and will legally becomes the bride property. The mahr could be anything that already agreed by the bride it can be a furniture, dwelling, jewelry, and so forth.
The mahr is equal to a present or gift for the bride as mentioned in the following verse,
“And give the women (upon marriage) their (bridal) gifts graciously. But if they give up willingly to you anything of it, then take it in satisfaction and ease.” (QS. An-Nisa : 4)
“But if you want to replace one wife with another and you have given one of them a great amount (in gifts), do not take (back) from it anything. Would you take it in injustice and manifest sin?” (QS. An-Nisa : 20)
Islam see mahr as appreciation for wife or women itself and how great the punishment as mentioned in the above verse for those who violate that. In marital life indeed both wife and husband is very importance and have a great impact on how their family will be.
Types of Mahr in Islam
There are some types of mahr in Islam that can be used in marriage, but most importantly is that marriage should be done for fulfill the guidance from Allah and looking for His blessing first.
1. Ring of iron
Mahr should not be a burden for a couple to get married, that is how islam see a problem thus muslims should not be worried on types of mahr in Islam, as long as it is allowed even a ring of iron is permissible. Rasulullah SAW said regarding there is one of the Companion who was poor but want to get married in below hadith:
“Search for something, even if it is just a ring made from iron.” (Narrated by Bukhari and Muslim)
The mahr or dowry is the right of the wife but not be the part of marriage contract, as mentioned in the following verse:
“There is no blame upon you if you divorce women you have not touched nor specified for them an obligation. But give them (a gift of) compensation – the wealthy according to his capability and the poor according to his capability – a provision according to what is acceptable, a duty upon the doers of good.
And if you divorce them before you have touched them and you have already specified for them an obligation, the (give) half of what you specified – unless they forego the right or the one in whose hand is the marriage contract foregoes it.
And to forego it is nearer to righteousness. And do not forget graciousness between you. Indeed Allah, of whatever you do, is Seeing.” (QS. Al-Baqarah : 236-237)
From the above hadith there is an explanation too about the dowries when the couple got divorce, you may also want to know about law of women ask divorce in islam.
It is a common thing to be used as a mahr in Islam, by giving this as a mahr hopefully the bride will read it, and always remember of Allah SWT. And most importantly both the bride and groom will be performing their duty as husband and wife with Quran as the guidance. Umm Sulaim accepted Abu Talha’s embracing Islam as her mahr and Rasulullah said:
“Go, for i have put her under your charge with what you have of the Qur’an.” (Bukhari & Muslim)
Marital life will never be easy, but if the couple keep the Quran as guidance and performing what is written in it and avoid anything that forbidden by Allah then He may bless their marital life forever. [AdSense-A]
3. Prayer tools
Prayer tools including clothes, prayer beads, rugs are things that commonly used as a mahr in Islam. By giving the prayer tools the groom would like to invite the bride for performing prayer with him.
Using this type of mahr to perform prayer and remembrance of Allah will give both of couple reward too, it will be a great mahr.
Money is usually used to be a mahr, the ammount itself is not determined, it depend on the capability of the groom. If we see in practice the money using as a mahr is often the ammount of their date of marriage or special amount that reflect or remind the couple of special events. But there are laws and reasons on how much mahr to give as a guidance.
It is recommended not to hand over dowries that exceed their ability, as Rasulullah said in the following hadith:
“The best of mahrs is the simplest (or most affordable).” (al-Haakim & al-Bayhaqi)
As well as Umar Ibn al-Khattaab said,
“Do not go to extremes with regard to the dowries of women, for if that were a sign of honour and dignity in this world or a sign of piety before Allah, then Muhammad SAW would have done that before you.
But he did not give any of his wives, and none of his daughters were given, more than twelve uqiyah. A man may increase the dowry until he feels resentments against her and says, ‘You cost me everything i own, and caused me a great deal of hardship’.” (Ibn Majah)
Gold is another type of mahr in Islam that used often. The beauty and the value is believed suit with an apreciation to the bride or women.
In indonesia sometimes a land is used to be a mahr. With the gift as mahr it means that the groom is ready to build household life and can be economically responsible for his family. A land may also be a perfect form of investment and saving for his wife.
It is not an ordinary common to use a livestock as mahr but in some region it was a perfect things to be a dowry for the bride. Livestocks like cow, bull, goat, sheep, and etc could be use as a mahr in Islam.
8. A shield
From Ibn Abbas that Ali said:
“I married Fatimah and said : ‘O Messenger of Allah, let me go ahead with the marriage.’ He said: ‘Give her something.’ I said: ‘I do not have anything.’ He said: Where is your Hutami shield?’ I said, ‘I have it with me.’ He said, ‘Give it to her.'” (Abu Dawud & al-Nasaai)
In the past an armor and shield is an important things for a person especially for a warrior. But the essence of the above hadith is to remind muslims that most important type of mahr in Islam is not about its luxury but more about the value for the one give the mahr (the groom).
In Islam the intention is more important indeed, even Islam give muslims a proper guidance to ways on how to ask for marriage in Islam.
Another types of mahr in Islam are:
9. Dowry in the form of services
There is an opinion among scholars that according to Quran and Hadith mahr has no limitation in its form. Thus, anything can be used as mahr as long as not forbidden in Islam (haram). A promise to perform services in the future can also be a mahr in Islam.
- Silver: Beside gold, silver is also a common things used as mahr
- House building: The house building can be a gift for the bride as well as a promise from the groom to her.
- Jewelries: Any other jewelries made of gem or precious stone also can be types of mahr in Islam.