The word qadr in Islam means fate or predestination. The belief in qadr means that Allah SWT has decreed upon anything including what happened to us. Believing in qadr are basically according to four things below:
It means that Allah knows what had been, will be, has never been, and the cause of every single event in this universe. We also believe that Allah knows what we do, done, or will do that Allah knows His creation choices and action in this world.
“Do you not know that Allah knows what is in the heaven and earth? Indeed, that is in a Record. Indeed that, for Allah is easy.” (QS. Al-Haj : 70)
It’s about a belief that Allah has written everything in al-Lauh al-Mahfuz even before the creation including our fate or destiny. The Messenger of Allah said in the following hadith,
“Allah recorded the measurement of all matters pertaining to creation fifty thousand years before He created the heavens and earth.” (Narrated by Muslim)
It means that only Allah posses the will to determine any action will happen or not. That any kind of event in this world only happened if He wanted to or with His permission.
“And indeed, your Lord – He is the Exalted in Might, the Merciful.” (QS. Ash-Shu’ara : 68)
“Allah keeps firm those who believe, with the firm word, in worldly life and in the Hereafter. And Allah sends astray the wrongdoers. And Allah does what He wills.” (QS. Ibrahim : 27)
It means that Allah is the creator that not only create our form, existence but also create our destiny. He already gives us a life to live in and it will depend on us what lives that we will choose. As mentioned in the following verse :
“Allah is the Creator of all things, and He is, over all things, Disposer of affairs.” (QS. Az-Zumar : 62)
Types of Qadr in Islam
In Islam, there are two main categories of qadr that we must understand, which are qadr of mubram and qadr of mu’allaq. Then, according to both categories, there are several types of qadr in Islam.
Qadr if Mubram
Mubram in term of language means provisions that have been decided and cannot be avoided or change. It is types of qadr in Islam that also have the same meaning as provisions of Allah SWT. This qadr is already determined or decided and it must occur or happen, which cannot be changed again, and Muslims must accept it sincerely.
Qadr if Mu’allaq
In term of language means provisions that are hung or linked. It is a type of qadr in Islam that also means provisions of Allah SWT which is still possible to change by effort, hard work, prayer, and human resignation.
Based on the example explanation of qadr both mubram and mu’allaq above, here are the examples from both of the types of qadr :
- Born. When living creatures including human beings born in this world, we cannot change when and how we are born in this world. (mubram)
- Dead. Living creatures live and die almost every day. As Muslims we must already know that a death cannot be change, we cannot avoid it. When our time comes and Allah had determined us to be dead, there is no other creature can oppose it. (mubram)
- Gender. We cannot change our gender no matter how hard we try. Even there are several people who are trying to change their gender by plastic surgery and so forth. The outcome will be no different, those people will never achieve any gender that they want since there is a special ability for each gender that cannot be swapped away. (mubram) See the rights of transgender in Islam.
- Judgment day. Allah SWT had determined when the judgment day will come. As a good Muslim, we only could believe in Him and cannot perform anything to change that provision. (mubram)
“Say, ‘I possess not for myself any harm or benefit except what Allah should will. For every nation is a (specified) term. When their time has come, then they will not remain behind an hour, nor will they precede (it).” (QS. Yunus : 49)
- The circulation of the solar system. It includes sunset, sunrise, lunar or solar eclipse. Nobody in this world can change those provisions. It is only Allah SWT who is allowed and able to change that provision by His power. (mubram)
- Property. If now we are poor, we can change it by working or doing anything to get money. There are a lot of opportunities for us to change that provision as long as we put an effort toward it. (mu’allaq)
- Competence. People who are not born as a smart one can still increase their knowledge by studying and praying to ask Allah to make it easy. (mu’allaq) Check out the importance of study in Islam.
- Chance. If we want to achieve a better career opportunity, we can perform best in our work in order to get the promotion. (mu’allaq)
- Physical Appearance. Someone who wants to change their appearance to be looked prettier or dress properly to be looked nice in front of people is also included as the types of qadr in Islam. Appearance is something that can be changed if we want to give an extra effort for putting on makeup. (mu’allaq)
- Health. Some sickness, illness or disease can be avoided. But, if you are a dirty person, it will give you more chance to be contaminated by a virus or bacteria. So, prevent ourselves from getting sick by performing sport or exercises is also the types of qadr in Islam. (mu’allaq)
- Achievement. A Muslim who wants to perform hajj may achieve their aim if he/she believes, pray, and save their money. The way he trying to fulfill their aim to perform Hajj is also the types of qadr in Islam. (mu’allaq)
- Knowledge. A Muslim who wants to be able to read Al-Qur’an will never get what he/she wants if he/she does not try to practice reading Al-Qur’an. (mu’allaq) See the rules of seeking knowledge in Islam and the importance of gaining knowledge in Islam.
“For each one are successive (angels) before and behind him who protect him by the decree of Allah. Indeed, Allah will not change the condition of a people until they change what is in themselves. And when Allah intends for a people ill, there is no repelling it. And there is not for them besides Him any patron.” (QS. Ar-Ra’d : 11)
- A partner or mate is also the types of qadr in islam. No matter how much effort you put to find your mate or partner if Allah does not give you permission to married yet then you would not be getting married. A mate is also a form of qadr of mubram. You should know how to find a spouse in Islam.
Well, Those are the types of qadr in Islam Muslims should believe and know. Hopefully, it will be useful to all of you.