Ramadan fasting is one of the five pillars of Islam. Ramadan month itself is including the best time that takes place on this earth. Allah promotes Al Quran in this and He gives the privilege of Ramadan for anyone who performs worship in this month even with multiple rewards as the hadith of the Messenger of Allah which reads:
“All the actions of Adam’s son doubled his kindness ten times as much as him so that seven hundred times double, Allah Azza Wajalla said: “It is fasting because it is for Me and I myself will repay, they leave lust and food for Me.” For people who fast, they will get two joys when breaking their fast and when meeting their Lord, and the stench (from the mouth of a fasting person) is more fragrant in the sight of Allah than the smell of Musk.” (History of al-Bukhari and Muslim)
In carrying out the fasting of Ramadan, a person must fulfill the legal requirements of fasting and harmony. Ramadan fasting also has many virtues or fadhilah for it is located between the opening of the gates of heaven and the closing of the gates of hell and the shaykh as narrated in the hadith of the Prophet Muhammad:
“If the beginning of the night in the month of Ramadan arrives, all the satan and the djinn are bound. All the gates of hell are closed. The caller also called out: “O people who expect good! Accept it. O people who expect evil! Stop, and (sincere) because God is freed from hell and (the caller will call) on every night of Ramadan.” (History of at-Tirmizi and Ibn Majah)
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Definition of Qadha
Qadha fasting or substitute fasting is fasting which is carried out instead of fasting that was abandoned during the month of Ramadan. Although Ramadan fasting is compulsory, a person is allowed to leave fasting because there is an obstacle, but he is obliged to substitute his fast after the month of Ramadan. This is in accordance with the word of Allah SWT in the letter Al Baqarah verse 184 which reads:
أَيَّامًا مَعْدُودَاتٍ ۚ فَمَنْ كَانَ مِنْكُمْ مَرِيضًا أَوْ عَلَىٰ سَفَرٍ فَعِدَّةٌ مِنْ أَيَّامٍ أُخَرَ ۚ وَعَلَى الَّذِينَ يُطِيقُونَهُ فِدْيَةٌ طَعَامُ مِسْكِينٍ ۖ فَمَنْ تَطَوَّعَ خَيْرًا فَهُوَ خَيْرٌ لَهُ ۚ وَأَنْ تَصُومُوا خَيْرٌ لَكُمْ ۖ إِنْ كُنْتُمْ تَعْلَمُونَ
“(i.e.) On certain days. So whoever is among you is sick or on the journey (then he breaks), then (it is obligatory for him to fast) as much as the day left on other days. And it is obligatory for those who carry it hard (if they do not fast) to pay fidyah (i.e.): to feed a poor person. Whoever is with a willingness to do a good deed, then that is better for him. And fasting is better for you if you know.” (QS. Al-Baqarah: 184)
As for those who are allowed to abandon fasting and practice the other days including:
- The person is sick and the pain makes him weak and unable to carry out fasting, he may abandon fasting on the day he is sick and takes care of him in the future. But a person who is mildly ill and still able to fast still has to carry out fasting so that when he abandons, he is sinful.
- A traveler or person who is on a long journey and the journey is far enough or the same as an obligatory prayer.
- Women who have menstruation or childbirth can abandon fasting and compensate the fast on the other days after Ramadan because menstrual blood cancels someone’s fast.
- Pregnant and lactating women. Women who are pregnant and breastfeeding may not fast if she is not able or weak and if she fasts, it is feared that it can disrupt the health or development of the baby. Some scholars argue that pregnant women are the same as parents who are unable to fast so they may not pay fast but only pay fidyah or feed poor people.
- If someone dies and he has left the fasting of Ramadan because of continuous illness, pregnancy, giving birth to an accident or a traveler then if he has not had time to compensate it then their heir is responsible for it.
Provisions for Qadha Intention
In carrying out the fasting of Ramadan, it is certainly not legal without fulfilling the requirements of fasting. The provisions of qadha and the intention to substitute fasting are explained in the following explanation.
- If someone abandons fasting in the month of Ramadan due to certain reasons, then he is circumcised to immediately substitute the fast. However, if someone does it without a clear reason, he is obliged to substitute his fast as soon as possible based on the opinions of scholar mahzab syafii and Imam Nawawi.
- If someone abandons fasting for reasons that are syar’i or in accordance with obstacles that allow him to according to Islam. So if he has not been able to substitute his fast before the next Ramadan due to the obstacles that have not disappeared then he is not obliged to pay fidyah and he can carry out qadha after the next Ramadan is passed.
- Substitute the fasting of Ramadan in succession is the Sunnah and is highly recommended.
- Qadha fasting should not be done on certain days such as in the month of Ramadan, Eid al-Fitr, Eid al-Adha, and tashrik days.
- The intention of qadha is spoken in the heart and not verbally where Muslims who want to pray and read their intentions are not required to ‘Talaffuz’.
- The intentions expressed in the heart must be in accordance with the purpose of carrying out fasting, namely qadha and the intention is said at night before the sun rises. In the opinion of the scholars, the intention to pray to fast must be pronounced every night before fasting, but there are those who argue that it is only possible to say the intention at the beginning of the fast.
- Before substituting fasting, someone should say the intention in the heart.
نَوَيْتُ صَوْمَ غَدٍ عَنْ قَضَاءٍ فَرْضَ رَمَضَانً ِللهِ تَعَالَى
“I intend to fast tomorrow because I am replacing fardhu Ramadan because of Allah Ta’ala.”
Qadha is like we have debt that must be paid to Allah SWT and must be immediately hastened if it does not have any obstacle.